a statement about the way things will happen in the future, often but not always based on experience or knowledge
a document, speech, or other sort of evidence written, created, or otherwise produced during the time under study
form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position
insists that "everyone else is doing it"; makes you want to be part of the group - "don't be the only one left behind"
uses a person to show that they use a product or service; sometimes famous people are used.
the speaker presents him or herself as an Average Joe, a common person who can understand and empathize with a listener's concerns.
applying a putdown to a person, product or group, even if it is not factual
unique or quirky special feature that makes something "standout" from its contemporaries. However, the special feature is typically thought to be of little relevance or use
all forms of writing that are not in verse form
a stanza, or a complete poem, consisting of four lines or verse
a group of words taken from a text or speech and repeated by someone other than the original author or speaker
an instance of using a word, phrase, or clause more than once in a passage - dwelling on a point
a repetition of similar sounding words
when a poem has lines ending with the words that sound the same
rhyme that occurs within a line of verse
the pattern of rhymes used in a poem, usually marked by letters
a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry
The use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's foolishness or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues
refers to looking only for a specific fact or piece of information without reading everything. You scan when you look for your favorite show listed in the cable guide.
at least one step removed from an event. They rely on primary sources for their facts and opinions.
the time and place at which a play, novel, or film is represented as happening
refers to looking only for the general or main ideas of a text
using like, as, and other comparison words to compare two unlike things
the voice in a poem. The speaker may be the poet or a character created by the poet. The speaker may also be a thing or an animal.
a group of lines forming a unit in a poem (*It is equivalent to a paragraph in prose.)
a popular belief about specific types of individuals (groups)
the quality that makes the author's writing unique, and which conveys the author's attitude, personality, and character
take larger selections of text and reduce them to their bare essentials. It is the gist, the key ideas, the main ideas, the main points that are worth noting and remembering.
that quality of a literary work that makes the reader or audience uncertain or tense about the outcome of events. Suspense makes the reader ask "What will happen next?"
a person, a place, an object, or an activity that stands for something beyond itself
the use of symbols to signify ideas and qualities by giving them symbolic meanings that are different from their literal sense
how a text is organized to help readers follow and understand the information presented
Cause & Effect
a writer analyzes the reasons for - and /or the consequences of - an action, event, or decision
ideas described or shown in the order in which they happened. It relates to the timing of the happenings (Remember: "chrono" means time)
follows a fixed order and thus forms a pattern (Think: Sequence)
details are presented as they are (or were) located in a space
Order of Importance
information is prioritized by the speaker in a hierarchy of value
underlying meaning of a literary work which may be stated directly or indirectly
the writer's attitude toward the subject (Think: tone of voice - How would the writer sound if you could hear him/her talk about the subject? What would his/her tone of voice be?)
a sentence that expresses the main idea of the paragraph in which it occurs
a figure of speech employed by writers or speakers to intentionally make a situation seem less important than it really is
a succession of metrical feet written, printed, or orally composed as one line; one of the lines of a poem
the language, especially the vocabulary, peculiar to a particular trade, profession, or group.
important information that tells more about the overall idea of a paragraph or section of a text
a type of autobiography that focuses on specific moment's in a person's life
a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable (a comparison does not use like or as)
the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables; the beat
the reader's feelings about a work of literature; the atmosphere
story or account of events, experiences, or the like, whether true or fictitious
the teller of a story
writing that tells about real people, places, or events
the use of sounds that are similar to the noise they represent for a rhetorical or artistic effect.
statement that reflects a belief or bias and cannot be proven
a statement that seems to contradict itself, but contains a truth
the imitation of an author's style with deliberate exaggeration for comic effect
restatement of text in the reader's own words
act of giving human qualities to objects, ideas, etc.
act of influencing the mind by arguments or reasons
passing off someone else's work as your own
series of events that make up a story
The introductory material which gives the setting, creates the tone, presents the characters, and presents other facts necessary to understanding the story.
A series of events (complications) that builds from the conflict. It begins with the conflict is triggered and ends with the climax.
The turning point of a story—frequently, it is the moment of the highest interest and greatest emotion. The point at which the outcome of the conflict can be predicted.
The events after the climax which close the story.
The way the story concludes
a person who writes poetry
an imaginative awareness of experience expressed through meaning, sound, and rhythmic language choices so as to evoke an emotional response. made up of lines and stanzas.
poem that tells a story and is meant to be sung or recited
a poem that is written in the physical shape of the subject
long poem that tells the story of a heroic figure
traditional form of Japanese poetry composed of 3 lines with specific syllable count
usually a lyric poem of moderate length, with a serious subject, and elevated style. It is devoted to the praise of a person, animal, or thing.
short, humorous poem composed of five lines (aabba rhyme scheme)
poem that is 14 lines in length (it expresses emotions)
poem without regular meter or rhyme
poem that tells a story
Point of View
the perspective from which the story is told
1st Person POV
A character in the story is the narrator. This character is telling the story. The narrator uses the pronouns I, me and we.
2nd Person POV
The narrator tells the story to another character using "you"
3rd Person Limited
a method of storytelling in which the narrator knows only the thoughts and feelings of a single character
3rd Person Omniscient
a method of storytelling in which the narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of all of the characters in the story
1) a word or phrase that refers to an idea rather than a concrete object or thing 2) In research writing a short summary of your completed research.
abbreviations formed from the initial components in a phrase or name.
the repetition of beginning sounds of words
a reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, etc.
a comparison used to explain an idea
a usually short narrative of an interesting, amusing, or biographical incident
without any name acknowledged, as that of author, contributor, or the like
the repetition of vowel sounds within words
a reader or viewer of a work
a person who writes a novel, poem, essay, etc.
the reason for writing
an account of a person's life written by that person (nonfiction)
the side a person favors (slant)
an account of one's life written by someone else (nonfiction)
A person portrayed in a novel, short story, or play. Can be animals or objects, also, but those are almost always personified.
the main character in a story, novel, drama or other literary work
a person/thing that works against the protagonist
appears throughout the novel, or in a major section of it; he/she is involved in the important actions and conflicts.
supports the main character in a story; they do not grow or change during the story. They are also known as two-dimensional or flat .
a character that does not change within/during a story
a person who changes within throughout a story
a character that possesses opposite qualities of the protagonist
how an author brings a character to life
Stating directly what the character is like
Writers show the characters in action and let readers decide for themselves what kind of characters they are. Writers will show what the characters do, what the characters say, what the character thinks, and what others say about the character.
the turning point of a story
to identify similarities
The minor challenges in the plot that appear during the rising action and make the overall conflict harder to solve.
the struggle(s) encountered in a work
Internal conflict-man vs. self
When a character is challenging his/her own beliefs or overcoming his/her emotions
External conflict-man vs. man
When one character struggles against another character
External conflict-man vs. nature
When a character struggles against the elements of nature, especially for survival
External conflict-man vs. society
When a character challenges an element or an idea of society
the feelings associated with a word
hints or suggestions in a text (usually to help with the meaning of a word)
to identify differences
two lines of poetry that often rhyme
The dictionary definition of a word
A pattern of language specific to a region or a group of people
Written conversation between two or more people
Marks in a dictionary used to show correct pronunciation
An informal record of a person's private life and day-to-day thoughts and concerns
An author's choice of words
drawing a conclusion
Using textual information to formulate an answer to a question not directly stated in the text
A short concluding section at the end of a literary work, detailing the future of the story, its characters, etc. (also known as afterword)
A brief statement commemorating a person who is deceased
A statement that can be proven
This occurs when the conclusion is not supported by the data
Literary work created from the author's imagination
A fictional story that often uses animals for characters. The story has a moral for people to apply to their lives.
A simple story that has been passed from generation to generation by word of mouth
A type of folklore that is handed down from the past about a specific person- usually someone of heroic accomplishments human nature, the origin of the world, or mysteries of nature
A piece of prose fiction that is usually read in one sitting
A work of literature that contains at least one fantastic or unreal element
A literary work about people and or events that could actually happen
A literary work based on a real event, but with fictional characters
A novel, short story, film, or play whose plot involves a crime or other event that remains unsettled until the very end
A short allegorical story designed to illustrate or teach some truth, religious principal, or moral lesson
Expressions that are not literally true—to create original descriptions
A break in a story that takes the reader back to a previous event
A note placed at the bottom of a page that comments on or cites a reference
When a writer provides hints that suggest a future event in a story
The structure or organization of a literary work
A type or category of literature
A broad statement about an entire group of people
The use of exaggeration as a rhetorical device or figure of speech
Expressions that cannot be interpreted literally
Words and phrases that appeal to the readers' five senses
informational text elements
Help the reader more easily navigate the text and often provide additional information to help students comprehend the content
A conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning. Essentially, it is the process of reaching a conclusion.
A meeting in which one person asks another about personal and/or professional matters
when an author says one thing and means something else (also called sarcasm)
a discrepancy between what is expected and what actually happens (a surprise twist)
when the audience knows something that the character in the story does not know
A system of stories about the gods, often explicitly religious in nature, that possibly were once believed to be true
A traditional story, usually of unknown authorship, that explains things such as human nature, the origin of the world, or mysteries of nature
A fictitious prose narrative of considerable length and complexity
A form of fiction that draws imaginatively on scientific knowledge and speculation
A story, usually for children, about elves, fairies, dragons, royalty, and other magical creatures