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SOC 101 inquizitive
Terms in this set (110)
What is the definition of socialization?
The process through which individuals fit into a society and internalize its values, beliefs, and norms and learn to function as its members.
the set of different social positions occupied by a single person
a social position occupied by a person
tension between different roles associated with a single status
the set of duties and responsibilities associated with a particular social position
Which of the following are examples of socialization?
- Someone acts visibly uncomfortable when a coworker tells a sexist joke.
- A parent teaches a child not to burp at the dinner table.
- A child shows a parent how to check email using a smartphone.
The Internet has taken some of the unpredictability and randomness out of human interactions. How might this be a bad thing?
We are less likely to be challenged by making friends with different backgrounds and interests from ours.
Adolescence is defined
as a stage of life when young people are biologically able to procreate but delayed in their assumption of adult sexual roles
For a sociologist, the goal in examining things like language, media, and stereotypes is to take what we see as natural and view it as a product of culture. What basic theme or themes does this illustrate?
Correct: Sociologists seek to uncover cause-and-effect relationships.
Thinking like a sociologist means making the familiar strange
Incorrect: Sociology demonstrates the truth of cultural relativism.
accomplishment of natural growth
give their children the room and resources to develop but leave it up to the kids to decide how they want to structure their free time.
hey structure their children's leisure time with formal activities; and reason with them over decisions in an effort to foster their kids' talents.
The Internet, by enabling us to obtain everything from music to vintage toys without leaving our home, sometimes without paying, is forcing us as a society to reconsider the meaning of
Historically, the idea that childhood is a distinct developmental stage is fairly recent. Place in order the events that led to its emergence.
- development of industrial factories
- parents away from kids during work day
- schools est. for kids while parents gone
- passage of laws lmiting child labor
What is the central idea of ethnomethodology?
Violate social norms and observe how people react.
Which media effect was the Hays Code, which regulated film content from 1934 to 1967, intended to combat?
the unintended long-term effects of violent and sex-related content on society's moral standards
What skills do Marines learn in boot camp as part of their socialization into the Marine Corps as a total institution?
C: how to kill
how to carry and use the equipment they have been issued
how to conform to rules about personal attire and personal areas
I: how to express themselves as individuals
Place in order the standard elements of a conversational script, according to Erving Goffman.
1. civil inattention
2. opening bracket
3. verbal encounter
4. closing bracket
Which item or items correctly describe the concept "equal opportunity for all"?
C: It is a value held by some cultures but not others.
I: It is a basic value, common to all cultures.
It is characteristic of developed, industrial nations.
It has always been a basic value in the United States.
T or F:
To say that something is socially constructed is to say that it is fake—without society creating it, it would not exist.
Which of the following is distinctive and important about Plato's doctrine of the ideal form of anything, such as the ideal chair or the ideal body?
The ideal form is eternal and unchanging. It is not a cultural creation.
Does the scenario on the right favor a nurture-based, nature-based, or neutral understanding of human development?
- nurture: Identical twins raised under very different circumstances have very different personality traits.
- nature: Identical twins raised under very different circumstances have similar personality traits.
- neutral: Two nonidentical children raised under different circumstances have different personality traits.
T or F: Vietnam-era military service correlates with higher divorce rates later in life.
What do limited liability partnerships illustrate about the relationship between law and commerce
Marx's theory of how capitalism gives rise to social institutions that promote capitalism
What are some reasons that people violate social norms?
ignorance of the norms
to study norms experimentally
desire to disturb onlookers
to smooth over an awkward situation
Which pair of concepts consists of two direct opposites?
ethnocentrism and cultural relativism
Which of the following are tenets of symbolic interactionism?
How people act toward things is based on the meanings those things have for them.
The meanings of things are generated by social interaction.
The meanings of things are filtered by each individual's interpretive process.
The primary source of meaning for a person is that person's self-interest.
The case of "Anna," a young girl who spent the first five or so years of her life left alone in a dark attic, illustrates the role of socialization in human development. What specific skills did Anna fail to develop?
C: Repsonse to light and dark, speech, high level reasoning
As Erving Goffman describes it, what activity is saving face part of? This activity is the main goal of our social activities, according to dramaturgical social theory.
T or F: In architecture, the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian column styles are not functionally superior to other styles; their historic prevalence in American architecture is simply a matter of tradition.
How was Shakespeare viewed by American audiences in the nineteenth century?
He was known as the playwright of the common man.
On which side of the nature vs. nurture debate do sociologists generally land?
They focus on nurture.
is the study of human society, and there is the sociology of sports, of religion, of music, of medicine, even a sociology of sociologists
a sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonably expect life to be predictable; too little social regulation; normlessness
a concept conceived by W. E. B. DuBois to describe the two behavioral scripts, one for moving through the world and the other incorporating the external opinions of prejudiced onlookers, which are constantly maintained by African Americans.
German for "understanding." This concept come from Max Weber and is the basis of interpretive sociology in which researchers image themselves experiencing the life positions of the social actors they want to understand rather than treating those people as objects to be examined.
the ability to connect the most basic, intimate aspects of an individual's life to seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces.
a strain within sociology that believes the social world can be described and predicted by certain describable relationships (akin to a social physics).
a complex group of interdependent positions that perform a social role and reproduce themselves over time; also defined in a narrow sense as any institution in a society that works to shape the behavior of the groups or people within it.
research that collects data from written reports, newspaper articles, journals, transcripts, television programs, diaries, artwork, and other artifacts that date to a prior time period under study.
a systematic analysis of the content rather than the structure of a communication, such as a written work, speech, or film.
a methodology by which two or more entities (such as countries), which are similar in many dimensions but differ on one in question, are compared to learn about the dimension that differs between them.
methods that seek to alter the social landscape in a very specific way for a given sample of individuals and then track what results that change yields; often involve comparisons to a control group that did not experience such an intervention.
a situation in which the researcher believes that A results in a change in B, but B, in fact, is causing A.
a proposed relationship between two variables.
the notion that a change in one factor results in a corresponding change in another. three factors are needed: correlation, time order, and ruling out alternative explanations.
the process of assigning a precise method for measuring a term being examined for use in a particular study.
the outcome that the researcher is trying to explain.
a measured factor that the researcher believes has a causal impact on the dependent variable.
the subset of the population from which you are actually collecting data.
a set of systems or methods that treat women's experiences as legitimate empirical and theoretical resources, that promote social science for women (think public sociology, but for a specific half of the public), and that take into account the researcher as much as the overt subject matter.
an ordered series of questions intended to elicit information from respondents.
an intensive investigation of one particular unit of analysis in order to describe it or uncover its mechanisms.
a qualitative research method that seeks to uncover the meanings people give their behavior by observing social actions in practice.
an entire group of individual persons, objects, or items from which samples may be drawn.
the extent to which we can claim our findings inform us about a group larger than the one we studied.
likelihood of obtaining consistent results using the same measure.
the extent to which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure.
analyzing and critically considering our own role in, and effect on, our research.
an experimental study where neither the subjects nor the researchers know who is in the treatment group and who is in the control (placebo) group.
the idea that conflict between competing interests is the basic, animating force of social change and society in general.
sociology that seeks to understand local interactional contexts; its methods of choice are ethnographic, generally including participant observation and in-depth interviews.
generally concerned with social dynamics at a higher level of analysis—that is, across the breadth of a society.
a theory that attempts to predict how certain social institutions tend to function.
? Social construction
an entity that exists because people behave as if it exists and whose existence is perpetuated as people and social institutions act in accordance with the widely agreed upon formal rules or informal norms of behavior associated with that entity.
the theory that various social institutions and processes in society exist to serve some important (or necessary) function to keep society running.
a condition characterized by a questioning of the notion of progress and history, the replacement of narrative within pastiche, and multiple, perhaps even conflicting, identities resulting from disjointed affiliations.
a nationality, not in the sense of carrying the rights and duties of citizenship but identifying with a past or future nationality. For later generations of white ethnics, something not constraining but easily expressed, with no risks of stigma and all the pleasures of feeling like an individual.
a research approach that starts with empirical observations and then works to form a theory.
a research approach that starts with a theory, forms a hypothesis, makes empirical observations, and then analyzes the data to confirm, reject, or modify the original theory.
Correlation or association
simultaneous variation in two variables.
methods that seek to obtain information about the social world that is already in or can be converted to numeric form.
approaches that social scientists use for investigating the answers to questions.
methods that attempt to collect information about the social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form.
a condition by which a dominant group uses its power to elicit the voluntary "consent" of the masses.
any formats or vehicles that carry, present, or communicate information.
the act of turning media against themselves.
the steady acquisition of material possessions, often with the belief that happiness and fulfillment can thus be achieved.
the distinct cultural values and behavioral patterns of a particular group in society; a group united by sets of concepts, values, symbols, and shared meaning specific to the members of that group distinctive enough to distinguish it from others within the same culture or society.
everything that is a part of our constructed, physical environment, including technology.
the belief that one's own culture or group is superior to others and the tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of one's own.
how values tell us to behave.
the process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as members of that society.
a recognizable social position that an individual occupies.
a status into which one is born; involuntary status.
literally "the methods of the people," this approach to studying human interaction focuses on the ways in which we make sense of our world, convey this understanding to others, and produce a shared social order.
an internalized sense of the total expectations of others in a variety of settings—regardless of whether we've encountered those people or places before.
the esteem in which an individual is held by others.
an institution in which one is totally immersed and that controls all the basics of day-to-day life; no barriers exist between the usual spheres of daily life, and all activity occurs in the same place and under the same single authority.
a status into which one enters; voluntary status.
the tension caused by competing demands between two or more roles pertaining to different statuses.
the incompatibility among roles corresponding to a single status.
someone or something outside of oneself.
the process by which one's sense of social values, beliefs, and norms are reengineered, often deliberately through an intense social process that may take place in a total institution.
the self as perceived as an object by the "I"; as the self as one imagines others perceive one.
the individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person.
the process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as members of that society.
taking into account the differences across cultures without passing judgment or assigning value.
modes of behavior and understanding that are not universal or natural.
>a system of concepts and relationships, an understanding of cause and effect.
a set of beliefs, traditions, and practices; the sum total of social categories and concepts we embrace in addition to beliefs, behaviors (except instinctual ones), and practices; that which is not the natural environment around us.
values, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms.
the idea that culture is a projection of social structures and relationships into the public sphere, a screen onto which the film of the underlying reality or social structures of our society is projected.
sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one's status as a male or female.
the duties and behaviors expected of someone who holds a particular status.
all the statuses one holds simultaneously.
one status within a set that stands out or overrides all others.
a micro-level theory in which shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people's actions.
one's sense of agency, action, or power.
the view of social life as essentially a theatrical performance, in which we are all actors on metaphorical stages, with roles, scripts, costumes, and sets.
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