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NE 101 Exam Three
Terms in this set (113)
The light-sensitive structure at the rear of the eye.
Made up of two main types of light-sensitive receptor cells called rods and cones, and the neural cells that are connected to them.
Light-sensitive receptors in the very back of the eye.
Light must pass through the neural cells first to reach receptors.
Filled with a light-sensitive chemical called photopigments.
Rod (120 million) photopigment.
More sensitive to ligh than the cone pigment.
Function better in dim light--soley rely on them in dim lighting.
Remains broken down in bright light so don't do anything
Cone (6 million) photopigment.
Requires a high level of light intensity to operate, so they are non functional in low light.
Three varieties of iodopsin, located in different cones, resopnd differentially to different wavelengths.
Cells of the retina
Light --> optic nerve fibers --> ganglion cells (G) --> amacrine cells (A) --> bipolar cells (B) --> horizontal cells (H) --> rod and cone receptors (R) --> back of eye (sclera).
The area of the retina from which a ganglion cell (or any other cell in the visual system) recieves its input.
Smaller in the fovea and larger in the periphery.
At each level beyond the retina is a map or series of maps of the retina.
Representations differ with reference to: precision (i.e. ability to localize; small receptive fields), attributes coded (e.g., color/form), amount of color/form), amount of cortex which responds to that input (more territory --> better acuity)
Functions best in dim light, poorly or not at all in bright light.
Detail vision is poor
Does not distinguish color.
Mostly in periphery of retina.
Large receptive field, due to convergence on ganglion cells; contributes to light sensitivity.
Functions best in bright light, poorly or not at all in dim light.
Detail vision is good.
Distinguishes among colors.
Mostly in fovea and surrounding area.
Small receptive field, with one or a few cones converging on a single ganglion cell; contributes to detail vision.
The place where there are no receptors when the nerve exits the eye.
Falls at different point sin a viusal scene, so you do not notice that any of your visual world is missing.
Brain "fills in" missing information.
The part of the environment being registered on the retina.
Objects are contralaterally processed.
A discrepancy in the location of an object's image on the two retinas.
Trichromatic theory/Young-Helmholtz theory
Just three color processes account for all the colors we are able to distinguish.
Red, blue, green.
Opponent process theory
Attempts to explain color vision in terms of opposing neural processes.
Photochemical in red/green receptors broken down by red light and regenerated in the presence of green light.
Photochemical in yellow/blue receptors broken down by yellow light and regenerated in the presence of blue light.
Colors that cancel each other out to produce a neutral gray or white.
Negative color after effect
Stare at a red stimulus for a minute and you will begin to see a green edge around it; then look at a white wall or a sheet of paper, and you will see a green version of the original object.
Hurvich and Jameson
Proposed that three types of color receptors--red sensitive, green sensitive, and blue sensitivie--are inter connected in an opponent process fashion at the ganglion cells.
Red/green: can see red and green but they look the same color.
Blue: Cannot see blue so the worls is different variations of green and red.
Adjacent retinal recptors activate adjacent cells in the visual cortex.
Does not tell us how we see images; transmitting an object's image to the cortex like a television picture does not amoun to perception of the object.
The detection of an objects boundaries and features (such as texture).
Each neuron's activity inhibits the activity of its neighbors and in turn its activity is inhibitied by them
Respond to a line or an edge that is at a specific orientation and at a specific place on the retina.
Respond to a line at one particular location in receptive field.
With one specific orientation--orientation selective (preferred orientation).
Small receptive field.
Continue to respond when a line or an edge moves to a different location as long as it is not too far from the original site.
Recieves input from several simple cells that have the same orientation sensitivitiy but whose fields are adjacent to each other on the retina.
If the edge rotates to a different orientation, this complex cell will stop responding, and a other complex cell specific for that orientation will take over.
Respond to a bar of light in a specific orientation anywhere in the receptive field.
Located in V1 and V2.
Have medium and large sized receptive fields.
Spatial frequency theory
Visual cortical cells do a Fourier frequency analysis of the luminosity variations in a scene.
Different visual cortical cells have a variety of sensitivities, not just those required to detect edges.
Refers to the segregation of the various components of processing into separate locations.
The Lower levels of the nervous system analyze their information and pass the results on to the next hight level for further analysis.
Ganglion cells are smaller than the other system's ganglion cells.
Account for the large majority of ganglion cells, and are the most numerous in the fovea.
Have circular receptive fields that are small and color opponent.
Discriminates between fine detail and color.
Derives from fovea of eye where cones are.
These ganglion cells have small (parvo) cell bodies.
Important for discriminating details.
Pathway to the inferotemporal area (IT).
Recognition of visual objects.
Represents shape and color constancy.
The 'what is it' pathway.
Ganglion cells have a larger receptive fields that are brighness opponent and respond rapidly but only briefly to stimulation.
Specialized for brighness contrast and movement.
Derives from periphery of eye where rods are.
These ganglion cells have large (mango) cell bodies.
Pathway to the parietal lobe.
Detects movement and sudden changes.
Informs movement system how to orient to, or manipulate, an object.
The "where"/"how to" pathway
Flows from the visual cortex into the temporal lobes.
Dominated by the parvocellular system.
V1 --> V2 --> V4 --> inferior temporal cortex.
V1 to temporal cortex.
Flows from the visual cortex tot he parietal lobes.
Dominated by the magnocellular stream.
V1 --> V2 --> V5 --> posterior parietal cortex.
V1 through posterior parietal to frontal.
The impaired ability to recognize objects.
Able to see an object, describe it in detail, and identify it by touch.
Unable to identify an object by sight or even to recognize an object from a picture that they have just drawn from memory.
Caused by damage to the inferior temporal cortex, the part of ventral stream where information about edges, spatial frequencies, texture, and so on is reassembled to form perceptions of objects.
An impaired ablitly to visually recognize familiar faces.
Caused by strokes, carbon monoxide poisoning, and Alzheimer's disease.
Inability to recognize faces.
Unconscious recognition has been found: altered skin conductance responses to familiar vs. unfamiliar faces--what does this suggest?
Fusiform face area (FFA)
A part of the fusiform gyrus on the underside of the temporal lobe that is important to face recognition.
The ability to respond to visual stimuli the are not consciously seen.
Damage to one or both V1 cortices.
Can localize and avoid beeping into objects with no awareness of seeing.
Projections to LGN and superior colliculus are intact--able to get info to "extra striate" (>V1) cortex.
Visual word form area (VWFA)
Responds to written words as a whole
The loss of ability to perceive colors due to brain damage.
The ability to recognize the so-called natural color of an object in spite of the illuminating wavelength.
An impaired ability to detect movement.
How the brain combines information from different areas into a unitary whole.
A specialized neuron that is suited by its structure and function to respond to a particular form of energy such as sound.
Converts energy into a neural response
The energy form for which the receptor is specialized.
The acquisition of sensory information.
The interpretation of sensory information.
Where the auditory stimulus is converted into neural impulses.
Contains a million moving parts.
Refers to the number of cycles or waves of alternating compression and decompression of the vibrating medium that occur
Our experience of the frequency of sound.
The physical energy in a sound.
Our experience of sound energy.
Only have one frequency.
Mixture of several frequencies.
Pinna (outer ear)
The flap that graces the side of your head.
Captures the souund and then amplifies it slightly by funneling it from the larger area in front; this makes it easier to focus on a sound, such as the conversation you're having, while excluding irrelevant sounds behind you.
Tympanic membrane (eardrum)
A very thin membrane stretched across the end of the auditory canal; its vibration transmits the sound enerty to the ossicles.
Tiny bones that operate in lever fashion to transfer vibration from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea.
Made up of the anvil (malleus), hammer (incus), and stirrup (stapes).
Provide additional amplification by concentrating the energy collected from the larger tympanic membrane onto the much smaller base of the stirrup, whic rests on the end of the cochlea.
Compensates fro the loss of energy as the vibration passes from air to the denser liquid inside the cochlea.
The muscles attatched to themtighten the joints to increase sensitivity to soft sounds and loosen the connections to dampen loud sounds.
Stirrup rests on the oval window.
The vestibular canal is the point of entry of sound energy into the cochlea.
The vestibular canal connects with the tympanic canal at the far end of the cochlea through an opening called the helicotrema.
The helicotrama allows the pressure waves to travel through the cochlear fluid into the tympanic canal more easily.
All this activity in the vestibular and tympanic canals bathes the cochlear canal in vibration. The vibration passes to the organ of Corti.
Where the auditory receptors are located.
Organ of Corti
The sound-analyzing structure that rests on the basilar membrane.
Consists of four rows of specialized cells called hair cells, their supporting cells, and the tectorial membrane above the hair cells.
Inner hair cells
Single row of 3,500 cells.
Receive 90% to 95% of the auditory neurons, and they provide the majority of the information about the auditory stimulation.
One to one or many ganglion cell ratio.
Outer hair cells
Increase the cochlea's sensitivity both by amplifying its output and by sharpening the frequencies.
Localized sensitivity adjustments.
Cocktail party effect: Brain can send information to cochlea to turn off sound you don't want to hear.
Many to one ganglion cell ratio.
Retinal ganglion cells
Respond to edges.
When on center responds it inhibits off surround.
_________ ______ of many retinal ganglion cells combine to form the ________ _____ of a single LGN cell which combine to form the ________ _____ of a single V1 cell.
Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)
A relay center in the thalamus for the visual pathway.
Receives a major sensory input from the retina.
The main central connection for the optic nerve to the occipital lobe.
Each point on retina projects to specific point in cortex.
The larger the cortical region receiving input from that region of the retina, the greater the acuity.
A huge amount of V1 is dedicated to input from the fovea.
After damage to one hemisphere of the brain is sustained, a deficit in attention to and awareness of one side of space is observed.
Defined by the inability of a person to process and perceive stimuli on one side of the body or environment, where that inability is not due to a lack of sensation.
Very commonly contralateral to the damaged hemisphere.
Can identify, but only certain items.
Basica acuity and visual fields preserved: Good acuity, brightness discrimination, color vision, and other elementary visual capabilities.
However, cannot distinguish between or recognize different visual shapes.
Cannot copy (draw) shapes.
Successful at copying the object at the right (drawing), naming an object just verbally described (recognition), naming an object just touched (recognition).
Unsuccessful at pointing to an object just touched (requires link between visual processing and object meaning).
Principles of auditory processing
Neural basis of language
Components of language.
Anatomy of language processing.
Microphone connected to wire that is implanted in cochlea.
Uses a signal processing chip that can be changed for different frequencies.
Physical and perceptual differences in sound
Sound waves cause two bones (eardrum) to knock together.
Cochlea is the hearing apparatus.
Stapes knocking agains oval winding causes motion in endolymph.
Waves in endolymph generate traveling wave in basilar membrane.
Sensory receptors embedded in basilar membrane.
Base of cochlea (stiff and narrow) responds at high frequency (about 20 kHz).
Apex (floppy and wide) responds at low frequencies.
Partially crossed for sound localization.
Auditory nerve --> brain stem nuclei (a bunch of different nuclear some on either side, bulk crosses) over --> inferior colliculus (midbrain) --> medial geniculate nucleus (diencephalon) --> auditory cortex.
Linear progression of cells in primary auditory cortex.
Secondary auditory cortex.
Binaural cues: Timing (at low frequencies), intensity (at high frequencies)
/f/ /th/ /a/
"un-" "break" "-able"
Vocal intonation (affect)
A region of the brain concerned with the production of speech, located in the cortex of the dominant frontal lobe.
Primary motor cortex
Controls voluntary (non-reflexive) movement.
Part of the somatosensory association cortex, which interprets tactile sensory data and is involved in perception of space and limbs location.
A region of the brain in the parietal lobe, that lies near the superior edge of the temporal lobe, and immediately posterior to the supramarginal gyrus.
Involved in a number of processes related to language, number processing and spatial cognition, memory retrieval, attention, and theory of mind.
A region of the brain concerned with the comprehension of language, located in the cortex of the dominant temporal lobe.
Primary auditory cortex
Part of the temporal lobe that processes auditory information in humans and other vertebrates. It is a part of the auditory system, performing basic and higher functions in hearing.
Broca's (non-fluent) aphasia
Nonfluent verbal output.
Not pure production problem..speech formation.
Damage to pre-motor cortex.
Poorly articulated speech, impaired repetition, effortful.
Included most meaningful words (content), but omitted small grammatical words/connectors (telegraphic speech)
Wernicke (fluent aphasia) aphasia
Frequent neologisms, lacks content words.
Comprehension of syntactically complex sentences defective.
Converting thoughts into actions impaired.
Pure word deafness
Loss of perceptual ability.
Hearing, speaking, writing intact.
Speech comprehension impaired.
Can identify non-speech sounds (dog bark, car horn, etc.)
Difficult identifying "fast" sounds.
Relies on multiple brain areas: major epicenters, unimodal cortices.
Integration at convergence zones: both hemispheres, memory/emotion.
Three distinct and interacting systems: Proprioceptive (body position), Interoceptive (body conditions--body temperature, blood pressure), Exteroreceptive (external stimuli)
Mediated by mechanoreceptors.
Receptors located in muscles--sense stretch and send feedback to the brain.
Receptors located in tendons--sense effort exerted by muscles.
Peripheral viscera have receptors too.
Senses body conditions.
Touch (mechanical stimuli).
Temperature (skin temperature mediated by warmth and cold receptors--both static and dynamic).
Pain (nociceptive stimuli).
Bare nerve endings sense pain/temperature.
Every other cutaneous receptor senses touch.
Dorsal column medial lemniscus
Dorsal root ganglion --> dorsal columns --> medulla --> medial lemniscos --> primary sensory cortex.
Information stays on the same side received on, crosses at brain stem.
Dorsal root ganglion --> spinothalimic tract --> medulla --> medial lemniscus (midbrain) --> primary somatosensory cortex.
Pain and temperature.
Consequences of spinal cord hemisection
Ascending (sensory) and descending (motor) tracts occupy different locations in the spinal cord white matter--incomplete spinal lesion may affect different functions.
Dorsal column and anterolateral systems cross midline at different levels--a spinal cord lesion may lead to a segregation of lost modalities (touch, temperature, pain, motor control).
Damage at half of T10: 1) loss of voluntary motor control and precise touch in ipsilesional leg, 2) Pain and temperature sensations are lost in contralesional leg.
S1 (primary somatosensory cortex: Somatotopic map (houmculus), the larger the area the greater the acuity of processing, input contralateral.
S2 (secondary somatosensory cortex): mainly input from S1, somatotopic map, input from both sides of the body.
Much of the output from S1 and S2 goes to association cortex in the posterior parietal cortex.
Inability to recognize objects by touch.
Pure cases are rare--other sensory deficits are usually present.
Loss of recognition or awareness of one's own body parts (accompanies hemispatial neglect).
The case of the man who fell out of bed.
Lack of awareness of paralysis of a limb ("denial").
Misoplegia: "dislike" of a limb.
1) Writing disability (agraphia).
2) Lack of understanding mathematical rules (aculculia).
3) Inability to distinguish right from left.
4) Inability to identify fingers (finger agnosia--can't name or recognize one's own or another's fingers)
Bilateral PPC damage.
Impaired visual guidance of movement.
Inability to attend to more than one object at a time ("simultagnosia").
Inability to use visual information to direction attention, eyes, or limbs.
Difficulty integrating parts into perceptual whole.
Organization of movement
2)Basal ganglia and cerebellum--refine/adjust motion.
3) Brainstem and spinal cord--execution of movement, reflexes.
Primary motor (M1) neurons/cortex: Conscious motion, movement, force, direction; monkey moving bar; certain neurons for certain directions.
Motor association cortex (premotor/supplementary): Motor program selection; lesions do not produce weakness, but do impair complex motions (integration of many body parts),
Prefrontal cortex: Planning.
M1: Motor lexicon
Have widespread, horizontal connections, heavily connected to each other.
Not organized for movement of single muscles.
Organized for movements--coordination of multiple muscles, "muscle memory."
Not a 1:1 relationship between M1 neurons and muscles because there wouldn't be coordination
Corticospinal tract (pyramidal tract)
Damage results in paralysis.
Corticospinal fibers arise from M1, pre-motor areas.
Primary motor cortex to muscles.
Midbrain and brain stem nuclei --> basal ganglia --> cerebellum --> spinal cord.
Movement initiation and reflexes.
Maintains muscle tone and trunk stability.
Dampens involuntary movement.
Phylogenetically older than pyramidal.
Brains areas of movements
Prefrontal cortex: Plans for movement; corollary discharge tells your body you are initiating movement so the visual system sees things standing still.
Premotor/supplementary cortex: selects/organizes motor program (coordinates L/R).
Primary Motor cortex: Executes/commands voluntary movement (force/ direction).
Basal Ganglia: Integrates and smoothes movement (learning).
Cerebellum: Refines movement, balance, timing, fine coordination.
Abnormality or impairment of voluntary movement.
Resulting in the appearance of flailing, ballistic, undesired movements of the limbs.
A progressive disease of the nervous system marked by tremor, muscular rigidity, and slow, imprecise movement, chiefly affecting middle-aged and elderly people.
A hereditary disease marked by degeneration of the brain cells and causing chorea and progressive dementia.
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