46 terms

World Studies Chapter 7

Age of European Exploration

Terms in this set (...)

Bartolomé de Las Casas
This Roman Catholic friar came to the Americas to serve as a missionary to the Indians
Many Indians converted to Roman Catholicism because
the Roman Church became the protector of the Indians.
The horse proved to be the most
beneficial animal to the Indians.
These were a welcome addition for their speed and strength. They made it possible for the Indians to hunt the buffalo herds more effectively. They also made carrying loads and traveling much easier.
Of the animals brought with the explorers, pigs were the most
These often ran wild and tended to eat many of the plants used by Indians for food, including the corn planted by the Indians. They are also carriers of various diseases that may have spread throughout the wildlife and into the food supply of the Indians.
Human-borne diseases may have
killed large numbers of Indians.
People who survived the plagues that had reduced populations in Europe may have
brought with them the means of transmitting these diseases to the Indians.
Most Europeans looked down on other cultures as
being less civilized.
Some of the cultures challenged the Europeans to
consider their own barbarities.
Slaughtered Indians by the thousands and destroyed whole villages. Spanish forces in general were especially brutal in conquering the Indian civilizations and then enslaving the survivors to labor in the mines and fields.
Prince Henry
This Portuguese prince prepared his sailors for exploration.
Prince Henry contributed to Portuguese exploration by
setting up a school for navigation to prepare his sailors.
Vasco da Gama
The first Portuguese explorer to land in India.
Portuguese sailors were willing to endure the risks and difficulties to sail to India because
the items they could buy could then be sold for a great deal of money.
The European country that was first to establish trade with Japan and China was
This was the ruler of the Aztecs when the Spanish conquistadors arrived.
China's response to European exploration
China allowed limited trade with the Europeans. Chinese government remained strong and European trade remained limited. Europeans continued to pressure China to open its borders for more trade and on terms that were favorable to the Europeans.
Strong leaders and skillful diplomacy
This protected Siam from European colonization.
Some motives for European exploration were
economic, social, political, and religious.
Economic motives for European exploration:
Europeans began to search for new trade routes that bypassed Muslims, local leaders, and Italian merchants. By sailing into uncharted waters, they believed they could find another route to the wealth of the East.
Social motives for European exploration:
Some Europeans explored to experience the thrill of adventure and receive the praise of men. Some were driven by curiosity and others by the quest for glory.
Political motives for European exploration:
Some rulers authorized exploration in order to claim foreign lands. Explorers were also sent to establish colonies and discover raw materials needed by the home country.
Religious motives for European exploration:
Explorers sailed in search of a mythical king, Prester John, in Africa who was thought to be a Christian. Europeans hoped to get his help in deffeating the Muslims and preserving Christianity. Some explorers went out with the goal of spreading the gospel to heathen cultures.
A ship using a combination of previous designs
Caravels could travel
on the open sea and sail upriver in the shallow coastal waters.
The triangular sails helped the caravel
maneuver in port and travel fast over shallow water.
The square sail allowed the caravel to
catch more wind and travel quickly on the open sea.
Some navigational improvements that made exploration possible were
improved maps and instruments.
Maps of the areas familiar to the Europeans became more and more accurate. Those who sailed west returned from their journeys with new information, so the existing maps were updated and improved.
Two instruments useful to a sailor were
compass and astrolabe.
A sailor's most useful instrument; allowed him to set a course and follow its direction faithfully. This was essential for navigating the open sea with no landmarks.
Used to measure the angle between the sun or a star and the horizon at a specific time of day or night. From this measure, the sailor could determine his latitude.
With the help of this tool, sailors were able to improve their accuracy by traveling north or south to their desired latitude. Once there, they would sail east or west on that latitude until they reached land.
Spain and Portugal were among the first European nations to explore because
they were bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. They had a long history of shipbuilding and navigating these bodies of water. They also had the advantage of access to navigational and mapmaking skills.
Motivated by a strong crusading spirit, they went out to spread the doctrine of the Roman Church and to continue the struggle against Muslims in other lands.
Plains Indians
These Indians migrated over the grasslands of the Great Plains and lived in tepees.
Two reasons Indians built mounds were
grave sites and temple mounds.
Iriquois Confederacy
Six tribes who spoke the common language of Iroquois formed this league. The tribes of this confederacy were able to develop complex cultures. The Iroquois were capable of great savagery. They often tortured captured enemies to death. They were also known to eat parts of their enemies in order to gain some of the fallen warriors' courage.
The Iroquois Confederacy became
one of the most powerful groups in eastern North America.
British and French colonists as well as other Indian tribes
needed the cooperation of the Iroquois in order to accomplish anything.
When the Spanish came to the Mayan civilization,
they offered no resistance.
Aztec capital, built in the middle of a lake.
The Aztecs built Tenochtitlán by
making floating islands from mounds of water plants and putting them in the middle of the lake. Once these had rooted, they filled the roots with soil and built on them.
The Aztecs were open to deception by Spanish conquerers because
they anticipated the return of Quetzalcoatl (one of their gods.)
In this culture, the punishment for adultery was death by stoning.
The Incas covered their buildings with sheets of gold because
the buildings were meant to reflect the sun and remind the Incas of their sun god.
The ruler of the Incas religion; served as the empire's living god. He owned the land, and authority resided in him.