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Terms in this set (298)
Empirically validated Treatment or Empirically Supported treatment
When counselors do integrate research into practice.
Correlation is simply an association. It is not the same as causality. The correlation between people who have an umbrella open and rain is very high, but opening your umbrella does not cause it to rain.
Three types of correlations
Go from negative 1 to 0 to positive 1. Zero means no correlation while positive 1 and negative 1 are perfect correlations. A negative .5 is not higher than a correlation of -.5 In fact, a correlation of -.8 is stronger than a correlation of .5.
A positive correlation: when x goes up, y goes up. For example, when you study more, your GPA goes up.
A negative correlation: when x goes up y goes down. For example, the more you brush your teeth, the less you will be plagued by cavities.
when one quanitifes or measures things. It yields numbers.
When does research does not use numberical data
When research has flaws
What is a true experiment?
Two or more groups are udes.
What is random sampling?
People are picked randomly and placed in groups using random assignment.
where every nth person is chosen can also be used howere, researchers stillprefer random sampling and random assignment
What is quasi-experimental research?
When the groups are not picked at random or the researcher cannot control the IV then it is a quasi rather than a true experiment. quasi-experimental research does not ensure causality.
What is the independent variable
The experimental group gets the IV and it is known as the experimental variable.
what is the DV or dependent variable?
the outcome data in the study is called the DV. If we want to see if eating carrots raises one's IQ then eating carrots is the IV while the IQ scores at the end of the study would be the DV.
Type I alpha error
When a researcher rejects a null hypothesis that is true.
Type II beta error
When a research accepts null when it should have been rejected.
What is significance levels in social science?
.05 or less (.01 to .001) The signifcance level gives you the probability of a type 1 error.
a single subject design or case study and thus does not rely on IV, DV, control group, ect. Case studies are becoming more popular.
evident when subjects in a study have cues regarding what the researcher deires or does not desire that influence their behavior. This can counfound an experiment rendering the research inaccurate.
An obtrustive or a reactive measure
if subjects know they are being observed. Observers' presence can influence subject's behavior rather than merely the experimental variable or treatment modality.
When subjects are not aware that they are being measured.
when an experimental has few flaws and thus findings are accurate. The IV caused the changes in the DV, not some other factor (known as confounding extraneous variables or artifacts). When internal vaility is low the researcher didn't measure what he thought he measured.
it is high when the results in a study can be generalized to other settings.
A t test
a popular parametric test for comparing two means.
ANOVA or analysis of variance
Also called a one-way ANOVA. used when you have two or means to compare. The t test and the ANOVA are parametric measures for normally distributed populations. The ANOVA provides F values and the F test will tell you if significant differences are present.
Used when you are investigating more than one DV>
A factorail analysis of variance
When you are investigating more than one IV/experimental variable (if you have two IVs it would be called a two-way ANOVA three IVs a three way ANOVA.)
if the population is not necessarily normal then this nonparametric test is used. or a Kruskal-wallace can be used.
Ex post facto or causal comparative design
if the researcher did not manipulate the variable and you are looing at after the fact data, the the research is not a true experiment.
statistics that describe central tendency like the mean, median, the mode, the range, quartiles, the variance and the standard deviation.
include correlation, coefficients, t tests, ANOVAs, Analusis of Covariance, Chi square, Krushal Wallis
examine a group of people who have something in common
tkaes place when the same individuals are evaluated over a period of time.
Relies on observation or data from a given point in time.
takes place during treatmetn or while a program is going on while summative or outcomes evaluations occurs at the end of a program or treatment (e.g. after the final session of counseling)
Between groups design
Uses different subjects in the different groups (e.g. one group of subjects for the control group and another group of subjects for the experimental group)
Within groups repeated measures design
uses the same subjects for the control condition and then at a different time for the IV/experimental conditions.
Scope of practice
implies that you only practice if you are adequately trained in a given area or with a given population.
A counselor's duty to warn
Based on the Tarasoff case. This principle now states that if a client is going to harm him or herself, somebody else, or both, you will break confidenctiality and contact the appropriate people (the police, the target person) to ward off this tragedy.
Could also be called multiple relationships on the exam. This concept implues that you are a person's helper but you also have another significant relationship with that person (maybe you are dating them or perhaps they are a relative or business partner) Such relationships get in the way of objectivity and should be avoided whenever possible unless the relationship is beneficial to the client.
Set by the state, law priviledged communication asserts that you cannot reveal what a client said in session in court unless the client allows you to do so. There are exceptions to this such as child abuse, suicide, homicide, and supervisory sessions or if a lawsuit is filed against you. You should never release information about the client outside of court (unless it is the exceptions just mentioned) unless the client signs a release of information consent form. Remember to disguise the identity of your clients when doing research, training or in a work for publications.
uniform procedures for scoring administration. In addition, these instruments have validity and reliability and norm data which has been investigated and analyzed.
The Mental Measurements Yearbook and Tests in Print
From the Buros Institute provide counselors with information on thousands of tests. Online versions are now available. Approximately 2,500 of the tests have been critically analyzed by Burros.
What are raw scores
Unaltered scores. Then can be converted to standard scores (e.g. t scores, z scores, percentile rank, standard deviation or stanine) so that the scores related to the normal bell curve.
The range is the highest score minus the lowest score.
tells the counselor the percent of scores equal to or below the score you are investigating. Hence, a client who is at the 75th percentile scored equal to or better than 75% of the people who took the exam. It does not necessarily imply that he or she got 75% of the answers correct since a score of 20% correct might be higher than 75% of the examinee
What are the three measures of central tendency
mean, mode, median
What is the mean
an arithmetic average
What is the mode
the most frequently occuring score or category
the middle score when the data are ranked from highest to lowest.
What is a normal curve
They all have the same point in the center of the bell shape
If the curve tail is to the left, the curve is what
If the curve tail is to the right, the curve is what
What is standard deviation
A measure of variability or dispersion of score. A standard deviation of 1 is a z score or standard score of one. A standard deviation of -2 is a z score of negative 2
What is a t score
Have a mean of 50 and the standard deviation is 10
What are the three areas under the normal curve
68% plus or minus 1, 95% plus or minus 2, 99.7% plus or minus 3. This is called empirical 68-95-99.7 normal curve
is the most important property of psychology test.
is the test consistent? Will it give the similar results if we administer it again and again. If am IQ test yields a score of 100 todayand 130 for the same client tomorrow it is not valid.
What is the rule for validity and reliability
a reliable test is not always valid, but a valid test is always reliable.
What is interrater relaibility
Describe the consistency of two or more raters. If two counselors read the same test reports and come up with the same diagnosis, then interrater relaibility or agreement is high. IF they come up with different diagnoses then it is low.
How is a test normed
It is normed on the majority culture is not appropriate for cultural minorities since it is misleading and could cause discrimination
Can test give a false positive or a false negative?
What does an aptitide test do?
Predicts potential. For example a high score on an aptitude test for music doesn't imply that you are a great musician but that with the corect training and practice you could excel in this area.
What does an achievement test do?
Gives you the current accomplishment, what has been learned or the level of performance achieved up to the point in time. (e.g. she is reading at the sixth grade level)
Intelligence tests or IQ
Wechsler or the Binet attempt to measure mental abilities. IG are very controversial and have been a source of debate for counselors.
(slow performance) is not a factor like it is in so-called speed test.
There is no correct answer. The client merely looks at an ink blot, a vague picture, or an incomplete sentence. The client's answer is assumed to be a projection of his or her personality. Thus two clients look at the same Rorschach Ink blot card or TAT picture and see something totally different.
Scoring projective tests is subjective. Thus one rater could score it differently than another rater.
Regression to the mean
states that if a client scores exceptionally low or exceptionally high on a test, then the client with the low score will go up on the next administrion; while the client with the high score will go down toward the mean or average. Chance factors or everyday luck probablyt influenced the first score.
Computer Assisted Career Guidance what is it? examples
SIGI plus or Discover. Screen the client to make certain this modality and computer program is approrpiate. Give the client an orientation to describe the pros and cons of the system. Follow-up to make certain an appropriate plan of actionis evident.
What is the Dictionary of Occupational titles (DOT)
List over 20,000 jobs titles. It replaced the O NET.
GOE or Guide for Occupational Information
Uses 14 interest areas (e.g. plants and animals or education and social services) to help fine tune career searches.
OOH or Occupational Outlook Handbook
Gives job trend for the future and salaries and can be accessed over the Internet
What was Richard Bolles's book?
What Color is Your Parachute?
What is the Hidden Job Market
80% of all job are not advertised and this job seekers need to network.
Occurs when a person takes a job below his or her level of skill, expterise, and training (e.g. PhD who works in an entry level fast food position)
A term that describes a person who is unemployed due to downsizing a company relocationm or the fact that the company closed the business.
Describes women who enter or reeneter the workforce after being at home. This often occurs after a divorce or the death of a partner or spouse.
Tkaes place when U.S. companies rely on labor from another country in order to save money.
What is a central tendency bias
When a supervisor erroneously rates the majority of workers as average.
The recency effect
Occurs when the rating reflects primarily the worker's recent performance (rather than the entire rating period) since this effect suggests we remember things the best that are presented last.
A supervisor generalizing about an employee based on a single characteristic (e.g. giving a worker who is kind a higher rating than a worker who is just as good but isnt kind) Positive and negative halo effects are possible.
What is trait and factor theory in career counseling and who came up with it?
Frank Parsons (father of guidance) he was the author of choosing a vocation. A client needs to know his or her personal attributes and interests or traits; Appropriate occipations should be investigated; match the client's traits to the occupation.
E.G. Williamson twist on trait and factor theory-six steps
analysis, synthesis, diagnosis, prognosis, counseling and follow up. The assumption is that there is a single best career goal for everyone. Most experts disagree.
What is Ann Roes psychodynamic needs approach to career counseling
Roes is like Rogers in person centered environment for careers. emphasized early child rearing practices influence later career choices. Jobs meet our needs determined by our childhood satisfaction and frustrations. Occupations are categorized by six levels and eight fields. Our orientation toward or awar from other people can influence our career choices.
Who developed (development theory for careers) and what is it?
Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and Herma. Three periods: fantasy (birth to 11 in which play becomes work oriented; tenetative (ages 11 to 17); and realistic (17 and up)
What is the career developmental approach?
David Tiedeman and Robert O'Hara. In their model career development is commensurate with psychosocial development linked to Erik Erikson's stages.
What is the Life Rainbow?
Donald Super. Emphasizing the role of the self-concept in career and vocation choice. People seek career satisifaction through work roles in which they can express themselves and further implement and develop their self concept.
What are the Five Life and Career Developmental Stages of Super
Growth Exploration, Establishment, Maintenance and Decline
What are the Tasks of Career Development
Crystalization, Specialization, Implementation, Stablization, Consolidation
What was John Holland's personality typology theory?
6 types: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising and conventional. (RIASEC). Also known for self-direct search tool, my vocational situation and vocational preference inventory.
Social Learning Theory career counseling?
Krumbolts, Mitchell and Jones-Career decisions are based on it. Four factors impact career choice: genetic factors and special abilities; the environment and special events; learning experiences; and task approach problem solving skills.
What is circumscription and compromised in career counseling?
Linda S. Gottfredson.
Self concept and self efficacy in determining vocational choices.
Emphasized circumscription (the process of narrowing the acceptable alternatives) and compromise (realizing that the client will not be able to implement their most preferred choices.) the client adjusts aspriations to accommodate such things as hiring practices, family obligations or educational programs. People sacrifice interests rather than sex-type of prestige.
What is Social Cognitive Career Theory
By lent, Brown and Hackett. Helps complement other theories emphasizing the role of self-efficacy and cognitive processes.
What are the six types of groups
psychoeducational/guidance groups. counseling groups, group therapy, t-groups, structured groups, self help groups/mutual groups/support groups
What is psychoeducation/guidance groups
Provide members with information relevant to their situation
Focus on conscious issues related to personal growth and development
A term coined by Jacob Moreno who founded psychodrama. Can focus on unconscious material, the past and personality change.
training groups are often intended for business or personal motivation
are centered around certain issues such as shyness or how to prepare for a job interview
Self-help groups/mutual help or support groups
Not led by a professional. These groups have been dubbed as support groups and those that follow the AA model are often called 12 step groups.
What is autocratic or authoritarian group style
advocates making decisions FOR members. It is appropriate during a crisis or when a quick decision is in order but in most situations it will foster resentment.
Laissez faire or hands off style what is this group style?
Here the leader has little involvement. This approach is appropriate when all members are very commited to a group outcome or goal.
Democratic approach group style
allows input from members but allows group members to have input into their decisions. This is generally the best style.
Speculative leaders group style
Often seen as charistmactic. they rely on their personal power and charisma to move the group in a desirable direction. They are often adored and group members look up to them, though they are not peer oriented.
Confrontive leadership style
The facilitator reveals the impact that his behavior has on himself as well as the impact that other group members have on him.
Which group style is best?
Research has not shown that the speculative style is superior to the confrontive style or vice verse. Whatever style the leader utilizes, he or she must not impose his or her personal values on group members.
How big should groups be?>
Ideal sixe is 5 to 6 to 8 members, with 8 being preferable. Groups that are conducted for a long time (6 months or so) can function effectively with up to 10 members. Size should be smaller with children.
What is the difference between and open and a closed group?
An open group is new members can join after the group begins. A closed group is no new members can join after the group begins.
What are the rules with leaders?
A group can have a single leader or be led by coleaders. The advantage of coleaders: having two role models (perhaps two genders) more feedback, one leader can deal with the client if there is transference and two leaders can better see what is transpiring in the group. Disadvantages: leaders can work at cross-purposes, may have conflicting models of therapy, could be in a power struggle and may each decide to charge the client a different fee.
What are the stages of group?
The initial stage, the forming stage or the orientation stage-This is called the get acquainted stage. The 2nd stage is the transition, conflict or the storming stage. This stage is characterized by power struggles for control and resistance. The 3rd stage is the working, productive, performing or action stage, Here the group works toward goals in a cohesive manner; the termination, closure, completion or mourning and adjourning stage. Members must deal with saying goodbye.
What are Yalom's 11 reasons that groups work so well?
Altruism-giving help to others gives members of sense of wellbeing.
Universality-simple the notion that you are not the only one in the world with a particular problem.
Installation of hope-In plain everyday English, the members expect the group to work.
Catharsis-Talking about your difficulities is beneficial.
Group cohesiveness: A sense of we-ness
Imitative behavior-We learn by watching others. In this situation, the members copy or model the leader and the other members.
Family reenactment-The group helps abet family of origin issues and feelings and the group allows you to work through them.
Imparting information: This could be advice or even psychodynamic insight.
Interpersonal learning: Members receive feedback regarding how their behavior affects others.
Socialization techniques: such as feedback and instruction are helpful.
Existential factors: Discovering that life can have meaning even if it is seemingly unjust or unfair at times.
Who was Nathan Ackerman
Family psychodynamic or psychoanalystic aproach to family counseling
used for persons who are experiencing an expected normal reaction to stress. Therapy on the other hand, is aimed at reducing absnormal and pathological behaviors and symptoms.
What is Milan Model know for?
a treatment team with a one-way mirror.
What is consultation?
Occurs when you voluntarily assist a counselor or counselors who will be helping clients.
the father of mental health consultation
What is strategic family counseling?
designed by Jay Haley and Cloe Madaness the therapist ggives directive or prescriptions often paradoxical. reframing and relabeling problems is common in this modelaity. This approach warns us that double-bind communication (a parent telling a child she loves her while beating her severely) could cause serious psychopathology even schizophrenia.
Other brief strategic therapists
milton erickson, steven deshazer, bill o'hanlon, paul watzlawick Don jackson and michelle weiner davis.
Solution focused brief therapusts
Speak of first order change which is superficial and second order change that includes actual changes in the rules and structure of the organization.
Who was Salvador Minuchin?
The leading name behind structural family therapy. The therapy proposes that changes in the family system, subsytems and family organization must take place in order for individual family members to resolve their systems. Structural family therapy is directive and performed in the here and now.
What is joining
blending in with the family.
imitate or copy the family's communication and patterns.
Who came up with Experimental conjoint family therapy and what is it?
Virginia Satir, and it popularized the notion that in times of stress, family members use four inept patterns of communication. The placator (who tries to please everybody in the family), the blamer; the reasonable analyzer (who intellectualizes) and the irrelevant distractor (who interrupts and changes the topic to something irrelevant)
Who was Carl Whitaker
A very wild, radical, creative and often utilized a cotherapist
What did Murrary Bowen come up with?
Intergenerational Therapy. Often called extended family systems therapy.
Triangulation is what
Also reffered to as triangles occurs when two people who are stressed, bring in a third party to reduce the dyad's stress level and restore equilibrium.
are actually graphic diagrams of the family from a minimum of three generations
is a blurring of the psychological boundaries between the self and others. A person driven by fusion can't seperate thinking and feeling well.
Is the ability to control reason over emotion. People often secure their level of differentiation from a multigenerational transmission process.
What is milieu therapy
urgers helpers to change the client;s entire environment (social and physical) to help the client. Hence, treatment is not limited to counseling sessions. In most instances, this takes place in inpatient treatment facilities.
Takes place when several helpers from the same agency or different agencies work together without duplicating services to help an individual client
asserts that the pathology resides in the family system and not in an individual. The client is the family and NOT the identified patient. Family therapists believe in circular rather than linear causality.
What is a first order change?
Occurs when a client makes a superficial change to deal wiht a problem, but the change does not alter the underlying structure of the family
What is a second order change?
alters the underlying structure and thus makes a difference that is longer lasting.
Whata is psychotherapy integration
Frederick Thorne. Uses strategies from a number of counseling schools. Instead of merely using techniques from the approaches in electisims, the integrative approach assumes that using and integrationg two or more theories will often produce results that are superior to a single school of therapy.
What is solution-focused brief therapy highlights and author
DeShazer and Insoo Kim Berg. Focuses on solutions and not on an understanding of the problem. The focus is on exceptions to the rule-what is working?
Goals are small realistic.
Uses Formula first session task (FFST)
Gained popularity in group treatment settings.
Narrative Therapy highlights and author
Michael White and David Epston
Postulates that individuals construct their lives by the storyes they tell about themselves and stories others create about them. Stories create meaning and this becomes the client's identity.
Client describes life experiences and then rewrites them.
Externalizes the problem in progress notes and sends it to the client as a letter between sessions
depersonalizes problem instead of I am a cocaine addict, cocaine has been trying to wreck your life.
therapists is a consultant or collaborator with the client.
New Reality Therapy and Choice Therapy
This therapy focuses on present behavior. Vlients are taught that they create their own personal reality with the behaviors they choose. Glasser has been criticized for downplaying the role of the environment in terms of impacting ethnic minorities. Also weak not dealing with dreams, the past or traumatic events. Glasser didn't believe drugs were the answer. Challenges the medical model of psychiatry.
A here and now approach that took freudian terminology and made it fun and easy to understand. The theory took into account transactions between indviduals. It is often combined with Gestalt.
Games are played to avoid intimacy. SOmebody is always hurt in a game. improve communication. How we treat ourselves, how we relate and communicate with others, People can Change we all have a right to be in the world and be accepted.
What is a life script
A life plan in TA
What are the ego states in TA
Parent, Adult, and Child
What are Tom Harris' Life Positions
I'm Ok, you're Okay Healthy; I'm OK, You're Not Okay, I'm Not OK, You're OKay; And I'm not ok you're not ok.
What is the drama triangle
Stephen B. Karpman-A person changes his or her position from victim to persecutor to rescuere.
What is Gestalt Therapy
Developed by Fritz Perls. It is an experiential/existential approach focuses on the here and now. Helps people become whole again. Relies on dream work, role-playing, confrontation, the top dog/underdog concept, hot seat, and the empty chair technique. Laura Perls his wife made this for women also.
What is the goal of Gestalt therapy
the client to take responsbility and achieve awareness in the here and now. Doing is emphasized over just talking about problems.
What is Cognitive Therapy
Developed by Aaron Beck. Emphasizing that the client has automatic thoughts which are distorting of reality.
Black or white thinking, overgeneralizing based on a single event, personalization-wrongly attributing an event to yourself and drawing conclusions without real evidence.
What is Active Directive Rational Emotive Behavior
Developed by Ellis. Change your thinking (cognition) and you can change your life. Irrational beliefs (IBs) are replaced by rational beliefs (RBs) via the counseling process. Comes with homework of bibliotherapy and rational imagery.
What is the ABC or the ABCDE model of personality?
A-activating event. B-is the client's belief system. C-is the emotional consequences. D-the counselor disputes the irrational belief. E-New emotional consequence that occurs when B becomes rational.
What causes irrational thoughts
shoulds, oughts, musts, terriblizing and awfulizing causes irrational thought.
What is Person Centered Humanistic Therapy
Developed by Carl Roger's Called client centered. The basic notion is that human beings can self-actualize and reach their full potential in a therapuetic setting that fosters growth; classified as an optimistic form of therapy.
What are the three conditions of effective helping
show empathy, be genuine/congruent, and display unconditional positive regard.
What is empathy
It is the ability to subjectively understand the client's world in the here and now to walk in his or her shoes and convey this to the client.
Who came up with the 5 point empathy scale
What is unconditional positive regard
The counselor accepts the client regardless of his or her behavior, This does not imply that you necessarily agree with the client.
Who coined the phrase behaviorism
John B. Watson
Who coined the term behavior therapy
What was B.F.Skinner's radial behaviorism
behavior is modeled soley by its consequences. This paradigm is known as operant or instrumental conditioning.
A positive reinforcer
a stimulus that raises the probability that a behavior will be repeated. The reinforcer must come after the behavior.
What is Behavior Therapy
Scientific principles of behavior such as classical and operant conditioning as well as observational learning, Applies principles of learning such as reinforcement, extinction, shaping and modeling. Skinner. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to events (stimuli) that occur in the enviroment. Reinforcement is the key element in skinner's S-R theory.
A negative reinforcer
raise behavior. A recruit in the military makes a bunk bed to avoid being yelled at by a drill instructor. All reinforcers whether positive or negative reaise behavior. All reinforcers are siad to follow or come after a behavior
What is social learning theory
Discovered by Albert Bandura. The person's own behavior increases when he or she sees somebody else getting reinforced for it; also referred to as vicarios learning or modeling
Adlerian Therapy is what
Personalities are formed in early years as a result of relationships with family. Adler emphasized the importance of community to society. Practical helping individuals change dysfunctional beliefs and encouraged them to take new steps. teaching and educationing individuals.
Punishment does what?
Extinction does what
lowers bheavior after an intial extinction burst or response burst.
Ratio schedules of reinforcement
rely on work output whereas interval schedules rely on time
occurs when each behavior is reinforced
occurs when some, but not all of the desired behaviors are reinforced
Shaping with successive approximations
reinforcing small chunks of behavior that lead to the desired behavior,
Differential reinforcement of other behaviors (DRO) and differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors (DRA)
Take place when the helper reinforces behaviors other than the dysfunctional behavior reduced the dysfunctional target behavior
What is operant conditioning
By Skinner. the behavior is affected by the consequences that come after the behavior.
What is classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov-behavior modification is generally based on Skinner while behavior therapy usually has its roots in pavolv
What is systematic desensititzation
Joseph Wolpe Can be conducted individually or in a group to curb fears and abate anxiety. His techniques of counterconditioning is based on Pavlov and relies on relaxation and imagining feared stimuli.
What is implosive therapy
Where the client imagines scary or feared stimuli in the safety of the counselor's office.
What was Alfred Adler's approach to psychology?
psychodymanic apprach that focuses on the fact that behavior is one's unconscious attemtp to compensate for feelings of inferiority.
Will to power.
Behavior is motivated primarily by future opportunities rather than the past.
What are the two parts to the unconscious to Jung
A personal unconscious and the collective unconscious, The collective unconscious is composed of archetypes passed down through the ages.
What are some of Jung's archetypes
person-a social mask the person weras. Animus or anima or androgynous. self symobolized as a madala.
What is individation?
Jung's term for becoming a unique human being.
What are Freud's ego defenses mechanisms?
repression, displacement, projection, reaction formation (you deny an unacceptable unconscious impulse by acting in the opposite manner); sublimation you express an unacceptable umpluse in a socially acceptable manner; rationalization; identification, suppression or denial.
What is abreaction or catharisis
discharge of repressed emotions
What is the death instinct
What is the five stage Atkinson, Morten, and Sue Racial/cultural Identity Development Model or the Minority Identity Model
Conformity (lean toward dominant culture and prefer a counselor from the dominant culture
Dissonance (question and confusion, prefer a counselor from a minority group)
Resistance and Immerison (reject the dominant culture while accepting one's own culture)
Introspection (Mixed feelings related to the previous stage, prefer a counselor from one's own racial/ethnic grou)
Synergetic Articulation and Awareness (stop racial and cultural oppression, prefers a counselor with a simillar attitude or worldview over merely a counselor who is the same race/ethnicity but has different beliefs.
What is a worldview
the way a client sees the world due to attitudes, value systems and beleifs.
What is Social comparison theory
Popularized by Leon Festinger, simply postulates that we evaluate our behaviors and accomplishments by comparing ourselves to others.
What is means tests
Determine whether a client is eligible for a social program or benefit such as temporary assistance for needy families or food stanps.
What is a social insurance program
social security for which an extremely wealthy could still be qualififed.
What is proxemics or spatial relations
personal space. Communication and social relations are impacted by it.
the notion that pschyolgically health people possess both masculine and feminine characteristics.
Occurs when we have an opinion based on insufficient evidence
the act of thinking that all people of a group are alike.
Low context communication
implies that there will be a long verbal explanation and high context communication relies on nonverbals that are readily understood by others in the culture.
the client's tone of voice, loudness, vocal inflections and speed of delivery, silence, and hestiation must be taken into consideration. It is part of the study of nonverbal communication and is usually considered more accurate than verbal communication.
What is culture
habits, customs, art, religion, science and political behavior of a given group of people during a given period of time.The dominant or major culture in a country is macroculture. The smaller is microculture.
What is universal culture
implies that we are all genetically and biologically similar "biological sameness"
What is national culture
determines our language, political views, and our laws.
where factors such as earthquakes, floods and food supply may influence our behavior.
occurs when one race views itself as superior to others. A given race has a set of genetically transmitted characteristics such as Caucasian, African American or Asian.
A given group sees itself as the standard by which other ethnic groups are measured.
Emic versus etic
Emic-approach the counselor helps the client understand his or her culture. How local people think. In the etic approach( scientific approach) the counselor focuses on the similarities in people; treating people as being the same. anthropologist think
The autoplastic-alloplastic dilemma
Autoplastic imples that the counselor helps the client change to cope with his or her environment. Alloplastic occurs when the counselor has the client try to change the environment.
What is the Six Stages Theory of Faith and Spiritual Development
James W. Fowler. Stage Stage 0-undifferentiated (primal faith) Stage 1-intuitive projective faith 2 to 7 years. Mythic-literal faith (childhood and beyond) Synthetic-conventional faith (adolescence and beyond a stage of conformity); individuative reflective faith (young adulthood and beyond; conjunctive faith (midthirites and beyond) opennes to other points of view, paradox, and appreciation of symobols and metaphors; and universalizing faith (midlife and beyond) few reach this stage of enlightment.
Three stage theory of intellectual and ethical development in Adults and College Students
William Perry; Dualism students view the truth is right or wrong Relativism is the notion that a perfect answer may not exists. Commitment to relativism- the final stage the individual is willing to change his or opinion based on novel facts and new points of view.
Freud's psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Five Psychosexual stages
oral (birth to one year)
anal (1 to 3 years)
phallic/Oedipal ELectra complex )3 to 7 years)
latency (3 to 5 until age 12)
Genital (adolsence and adulthood)
What is Vygotsky known for
Zone of proximal development-the difference in the child's ability to solve problems on his own and his capacity to solve them with some help from others, Scaffolding (helping a child with a task too difficult)
Who was Daniel Levinson
Wrote The Seasons of a Man's Life. Four key areas. childhood adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood and later adulthood.
What are the two key concepts of Levison's theory of life structure?
stable period-when a person makes crucial choices in life and transitional period-the end of a person's stage and the beginning of a new one.
What are the six stages of adulthood in Levnison's theory "Seasons of a Man's Life"
Early adult transition (17-22) leave adolescence, make preliminary choices for adult life
Entering adult world (22-28) make initial choices in love, occupation, friendship, values and lifestyle
Age 30 transition 28-33 changes occur in life structure, either a moderate change or a severe stressful crisis.
Settling down (33-40) establish a niche in society.
Mid-life transition (40-45)
Entering middle adulthood-choices must be made, a new life structure is formed, person must commit to new tasks.
What is Johari Window
Charles Handy calls it a house with four rooms. Room 1 is the part that we see and others see. Room 2 is the aspects that others see but we are not aware of. Room 3 is our private space, which we keep from others. Room 4 the most mysterious room. unconscious, subconscious.
adjectives pick from client and peer placed in open (arena), hidden (facade), Blind and Unknown.
What is included in Piaget's sensorimotor stage
simple reflexes-rooting sucking
first habits and primary circular reactions
secondary circular reactions
coordination of secondary circular reactions
teritary circular reactions, novelty and curiosity
Internatlization of schemata
What is included in Piaget's preoperational stage
Symbolic function substage
intuitive thought substage
concrete operational stage
formal operational stage
What book did Carol Gillian write
IN a Different Voice.
Lawrence Kohlberg three levels of moral development
Preconventional level-behavior governed by consequences, conventional level-a desire to conform to socially acceptable rules; postconventional level-self accepted moral priniciples guide behavior.
What is Keagan's constructive developmental model
Emphasizes the impact of interpersonal interaction and our perception of reality
What are Jean Piaget's Qualitative Four Stages of Cognitive Development
sensorimoter (birth to 2) Preoperational (2 to 7) Concerete Operaitons (7 to 12 years) and Formal Operations (11/12 to 16)
What is a schema
pattern of thought and behavior
What is adaptation
Qualitatively when the individual fits information into existing ideas(assimilation) and modifies cognitive schema to incorporate new information (accommodation)
What is object permanence
occurs in the sensorimotor stage and object the child can't see still exists.
The act of focusing on one aspect of something. It is a key factor in preoperational stage.
Takes place in the concreate operation stage. The child knows that volume and quantity co not change (pouring water) The child comprehends that a change in shapes does not mean a change in volume.
Abstract scientific thinking
takes place in the formal operations stage.
What are erikson's stages
trust vs. mistrust
autonomy vs. shame and doubt
initiative versus guilt
industry versus inferirority
identity vs. role confusions
intimacy vs. isolation
generativity vs stagnation
integrity vs. despair
Developed by Robert Yerkes, the ____ is a language free test that was designed for indviduals who could not read or were foreign born
If a professional school counselors if a student is ready to move to the next grade level, she should administer an
maximal performance test
The Vocational and technical education act of 1984
provides disadvantage populations access to voational assessment counseling and placement services
A professional counselor release a client's test result to a bachelor level person
Which source is designed to provide the layperson with understandable assessment information?
postive item discriination
more students who didnot know the material well, answered the question correctly
Which type of instrument scale is based on the belief that people think dichotomously
Item response theory can be used to
Detect item bias in the same test given to an african american and a lation american
always 9 sections stanine of 5 is directly in the middle. 1-9 in a normal bell curve. stanine are whole numbers
Stanford-Binet was calculated
Mental age divided by chronological age
Which objective personality test is designed to identify DSM-5 Axis II personality disorders?
Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator uses four dichotomous scales to measure personality. WWhat specific aspect of personality does the sensing vs. intuition scale measure?
How you perceive the world around you
Rating scales are used to
evaluate the quantity of an attribute, are highly subjective, used to assess a broad range of behaviors.
Performance assessments require what
require examinees to perform a task
Achievement testing includes
standardized norm-referenced test, teacher-constructed criterion-referenced test, and standardized high stakes tests,
What are examples of aptitude tests
GRE, Clerical Test Battery, Standford-Binet
What does the differential Aptitude test meansure
measures several distinct aspects of vocational ability
What is true about test validity?
validity should always be reported in terms of test purpose and intended population, test scores do not have to be valid to be reliable and false positive errors contribute to a lack of test score validity
What formula would you use to measure the interitem consistency of a test with a Likert-type scale
Cronbach's coefficient alpha
What does positive discrimination mean on test questions
more students, who did not know the material well, answered the question correctly than students who knew the material
What is test adapation?
strives to elicit the same responses from test-takers regardless of the examinee's cultural or linguistic backgrounds
What are advantages to taking a test via computer
greater scoring accuracy, can provide immediate feedback concerning client performance, and minimizes human contact and involvement with the testing process.
What is a computer adaptive test?
A test that has the ability to modify the test structure and items to the examinee's ability level
19th century scientist for assessment
William Wundt, James Cattell, and Sir Francis Galton
20th century developments in assessments include
intelligence, ability, personality and interest testing
How is assessment in counseling used
diagnosing and treatment planning, client placement, admissions decisions, the selection of candidates into special programming or job positions, monitoring client progress in counseling and evaluating the outcomes of counseling.
Who provides the guidelines that outline ethical use of assessments
ACA and NBCC
What are some of the guidelines for the ethical use of assessments?
counselor competence, obtaining client informed consent, releasing results only to qualified professionals, selecting appropriate assessment instruments, indicating concerns regarding test validity and reliability when providing assessment results, administering assessments under conditions that facilitate optimal results, not using outdated assessments and using scientific methology to develop new assessments.
What are three types of validity?
Content validity, criterion validity and construct validity
What are four types of reliability?
test retest, alternative form, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability
What are objective personality assessments?
The use of standardized, self-report instruments to assess a person's affective realm.
What are projective personality assessments
assess personality by interpreting a client's response to ambiguous stimuli.
What is the exam to determine client's overall health and what does it assess
MSE Mental Status Exam and it assess a client's appearance, attitufe, movement and behavior, mood, thought content, perceptions, thought processes, judgment and insight, and intellectual functioning and memory.
What is bias in assessment
Occurs when individuals are deprived of the opportunity to demonostrate their true skills, knowledge, abilities, and personalties on a given assessment.
What are specific types of bias
test bias, examiner bias, interpretive bias, response bias, stiutational bias, and ecological bias
Test adaptation is
The process of altering a test for a population that is culturally different from the original test population.
What is computer based testing
Involes the administration, analysis, and interpretation of tests via computer technology, software programs, and Internet sites. No standards have been developed for administering these tests.
What was Bandura's career theory
Self-efficacy plays a major rule in how goals, tasks, and challenges are approached.
Felt that difficulties related to job choices were due to neurotic symptoms
What are the four stages of Circumscription
Linda Gottfredson. Stage 1-Orientation to size and power
Stage 2-Orientation to sex roles Stage 3 Orientation to Social Valuation and Stage 4 Orientation to Internal, Unique self
What are the six personality types on theRIASEC
realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional
Who wrote choosing a vocation
What is a variable
Construct that has at least two levels or categories and, therefore, can vary
What is power
related to errors in hypothesis testing. the likelihood of detecting a significant relationships between variables when one is really there.
Involves sampling a known population. Can sample a small percentage of the population using randomization
samples of convenience.
Identifyies existing subgroups and not individual participants. Typically less representative than other probability sampling methods.
What is the Hawthorne effect
Presence of the investigator affects participant repsonses independent of any intervention.
What are the stages of a group
forming, storming, norming, performing
what is cultural encapsulation?
the dominant cultural view is regarded in counseling as more important
the degree to which individuals identify belonging to subgroups of various cultural groups or categories
Triparite Model of Multicultural Counseling
Three components: Awareness, Knowledge and Skills
What is chronemics
how individuals conceptualize and act towards time
refers to an orientation toward time in a linear fashion
refers to the value of time as secondary to relationships
Fours models of acculturation
assimilation, seperation, integration, and marginalization
Locus of responsbility
refers to what system is accountable for things that happen to individuals
Locus of control
the degree of control individuals perceive they have over their environment
Focus on a person's biological functioning (ex. women will be able to conceive and have children)
Expectations placed on a person based on society in terms of gender
The way people prefer to meet their sexual needs and object to their sexual attraction
Four components that help define sexual orientation; phsycial identity, gender identity, social sex identity, sex orientation identity
Rehabilitation of Act of 1973
Prohibts discrimination against persons with disabilities in federally sponsored or federal programs.
American with Disabilities Act of 1990
Prohibts discrimination of persons with disabilities in employment, public services, telecommunications, and accomodations
Individuals with Disabiliteis Education Improvement Act of 2004
Provision of non-discriminatory education process for children with disabilities in the least restrictive environment
form of discrimination that afflicts this population, where people believe that one who is disabled is limited in the extent of what they can truly do and underevaluates their abilities.
The belief in equitable world for all individuals and the cooresponding goal of promoting fairness by addressing priveledge and oppression
Balanced allocation of services, rights and duties within a society
Fair access to services, resources and education that allow individuals to reach a good quality of life with the ability to make one's own decision.
obvious acts of oppression by both forces and deprivation
oppressive acts in which individuals do not get directly involved but from which they may benefit
When minority group members adopt the majority opinion so they fit in. Also known as internalized oppression
The sharing of harmful views with those who have the same belief systems.
working for the greater good of all of the community instead of being merely self-serving
Individual perspective that one race is less intelligent, inferior
Racism perpetrated by institutions such as businesses and government
Devaluing cultural artifacts that do not approximate white values
Taking in the majority beliefs about minority group that will cause the minority group to believe stereotypes concerning
Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance
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While participating in a group therapy session, one group member consistently asks for clarification of the topic the group is discussing. The nurse leading the group interprets this behavior as reflecting which group role?
Lawson applied for entry into a graduate program for which he felt particularly well-suited, but he was denied admission. What would be good advice for Lawson as he figures out his next step?