Terms in this set (60)
Rosetos come to America
In Jan of 1882, 11 Rosetans- 10 men and one boy- come to New York ---> Find work near Pennsyvania
following year, 15 more came to Bnager
By 1894, 1200 Rosetans applied for passports to America from Italy and left old village
Bought land on rocky hillside\Built church called Our Lady of Mount Carmel
Named street "Garibaldi Avenue" after great hero of Italian unification
1st called it "New Italy" then "Roseto"
Roseto Town comes to life
1896, priest by name Father Pasquale de Nisco took over church
Set spiritual socities and organized festivals
Townsfolk encouraged to clear land and plant
Schools, park, convent, and cemetrays built
More than dozen facotoies spung up maling blouses for gar,mnet trade
Roseto Linguistic culture
Neighboring Bangor was Welsh and English but also German-----> fractious so mainly Roseto stayed alone.
Few decades after 1900, you would only hear Italian
(precise southern Foggian dialect spoken in Roseto Italy).
Studied digestion and the stomach
Taught medical school at University of Oklahoma
Spent summers on farm near Roseto but never knew of it
Late 1950s- one of local doctors said rarely find anyone from Roseto under the age of 65 with heart disease (before advent of cholestrol-lowering drugs + heart attacks epidemic in USA - leading cause of death of men under 65)
Wolf's investigation Procedure
enlisted support of his students and colleagues from Oaklohoma
Gathered death certificates from residents of town
Analzed physician's records
Took medical histories and constructed family genealogies
preliminary study: is an initial exploration of issues related to a proposed quality review or evaluation.
Roseto investigation findings
no one under 55 had died of heart attack or showed any signs of heart disease
men over 65: death rate from heart disease half that of US as whole
Death rate from all causes in Roseto 30 to 35 percent lower than expected.
Friend of Wolf
Sociologist from Oaklohoma
Went house to house talking to 21 and up
No suicide, alcoholism, drugs, little crime
People dying of old age!
Wolf's original hypothesis
Rosetos must have held onto some dietary practices from Old World-------> makes healthier
-cooking with lard instead of much healthier olive oil usd in Italy
Pizza had bread dough + meats + egg
sweets like biscotti and taralli not just holidays now
41% calories came from fat
smoked heavily and obesity common
Wolf's hypothesis of cause being genetics and location
GENETICS NOT IT
Hardy stock that protected them from disease?
tracked down relatives living in other parts of USA
Didn't share same good health
LOCATION NOT IT
Is it possible something about living in foothills of eastern Penn was good for health?
Two closet towns Bangor (down the hill) and Nazareth (few miles away) ---> for men over 65 death rates 3x higher
Wolf and Bruhn Conculsion
secret of Roseto was Roseto itself
unifying and calming effect of church + 3 generations under 1 roof + 22 separate civic organizations in town of under 2,000 people + egalitarian ethos of community (wealth don't flaunt and help poor)
When transplanting paesani culture here created powerful, protective social structure capable of insulating them from pressures of modern world
Were healthy because of where they were from + their world
Wolf and Bruhn presenting their findings
Had to convince medical field of magical benefits of stopping and talking to one another on the street or close families under 1 roof
conventional wisdom at the time said it was all genes or the choices we make like diet.
No one thought of health in terms of community
Have to understand culture to understand heath and heart attacks of individuals
The world we inhabit and people we surround ourselves with has a profound effect on who we are
Canadian Hockey League
Tigers and Giants 2 finest teams in the legue
in turn the finest junior hockey league in the world
future stars- 17, 18, 19 year olds
Game broadcast on national television
Memorial Cu banners hung from lampposts all downtown Vancouver
meritocracy: holding of power by people selected on the basis of their ability
Thousands of boys start playing at "novice" level- kinder.
By time mid teens, best of best have been channeled into elite league known as Major Junior A- top of pyramid
If you team plays for Memorial cup, top of the top
Based on individual merit: players judged by own performance and on basis of ability- or are they?
What is the question we always ask about success?
Want to know what they're like
personalty? + intelligence? + lifestyles? + special talents? = explains how they reached the top
The story lines of all autobiographies- Their message
Hero is born in modest circumstances and by virtue of own grit and talent fights to greatness
- BIBLE: Joseph cast out by brothers, sold into slavery, rises to be pharaoh's right-hand man bc of his insight
- 19TH CENTURY NOVELS- Horatio Alger- young boys born into poverty rise to to riches through initiative
JEB BUSH- "self-made man"- measure of how much we associate success with efforts of individual that few batted eye
BEN FRANKLIN STATUE- Robert Winthrop speech- "lived to stand before kings, and died to leave a name the world would never forget"
The problem with the associations of success
people don't rise from nothing
invariably the beneficiaries of hidden advantageous and extraordinary opportunities and cultural legacies that allow them to make sense of the world.
Makes a difference when and where we grew up
Culture and legacies passed down shapes patterns of achievements
Only by asking where they are from can we unravel the logic behind who succeeds and who doesn't.
Biologists talk about the ecology of organisms. Tallest tree not just because of heartiest seed but because no other tree blocks its sunlight.
Have to study the forest not one tree.
Mid 1980s 1st drew attention to the phenomenon of relative age in hockey
Lethbridge Broncos hockey game in southern Alberta ---> wife pointed relative months out
looked u birth dates of many professional hockey players and saw same pattern: most birthdays in JAN, FEB, MAR
Gathered statistics on every players in the Ontario Junior Hockey League, young players selected for elite travelling squads, and composition of National Hockey League
Hockey Player's Birthday Investigation Findings
Ontario Junior Hockey Legague----> same pattern
5 1/2 x as many born in jan than nov
young players selected for elite travleeing squads--> same
composition of National Hockey Legue--> same
40% between jan and march
30% between apr and june
20% between july and sep
10% between oct and dec
Hockey Age Explanation
Cut off for age-class hockey is Jan. 1
10 on jan 2 playing with Nov. 10 kid----> makes jan kid seem bigger and more mature
Players selected for travelling around 9 or 10--> more practice and experience for jan-apr kids ---> actually better by time to be chosen for Major Junior A league and from there, big leagues.
Example of sociologist Robert Merton's "self-fulfilling prophecy"
Canadians start with false definition of who is the best of the 9-10 yrs olds bc they just choose the oldest, the way they treat them, however, makes their original judgement look correct.
Barnsley's argument about skewed age distributions
These kinds of skewed age distributions exist whenever three things happen:
selection, streaming, and differentiated experience
skewed age distributions across globe
Baseball cut off July 31
Most major league baseball players born in August
2007 Czech National Junior soccer team
All but 5 Jan-Apr
skewed age distributions and education
Hold my end of calendar year child back?
Two economists- Kelly Bedard and Elizabeth Dhuey
looked at relationship between scores on TIMSS and month of birth.
Oldest children scored better
Confusing maturity with ability
Same pattern for college
----Denmark has national policy where no ability grouping until age of 10
The Matthew Effect
Robert Merton calls phenomena this
Named after the New Testament verse
those who are successful are more likely to be given the kinds of special opportunities that lead o further success
Success is the result of "accumulative advantage"
-Hockey player started out just a little better but became outlier after accumulative advantage
Other implications of the hockey example
systems we set up to determine who gets ahead aren't particularly efficient.
Start early with gifted programs ---> no talents slips through
essentially half of the year's talent is being overlooked, discouraged and squashed.
Too dismissive of those who fail
Why don't we split up and do separate classes based on months born or separate cutoff dates to even the playing fields?
Bc we cling to the idea that success is a simple function of individual merit and that the world in which we all grow up and the rules we choose to write as a society don't matter.
Father of one of the Medicine Hat Tigers- Scott with Jan. 4 birthday
Might have been watching from stands if cutoff later in year
University of Michigan's Computer Center
On Beal Avenue in Ann Arbor
Had one of the most advanced computer science programs in the world
---Came to the University the year the Computer Center opened
---16 years old- "most studious student"
---Thought he might be biologist or mathematician but hooked on computers
---Programmed whatever he could
---1975 Graduate school at University of Cali at Berkeley
buried himself into world of computer software
---Tried to rewrite UNIX--> software devloped by AT&T
---Wrote most of the software that allows us to access the internet
---Cofounded Silicon Valley firm Sun Microsystems
Is there such thing as innate talent?
Achievement is talent plus preparation
The closer psychologists look at the careers of the gifted, the smaller innate talents seems to play a role and bigger role prep seems to play
Exhibit A in the talent Argument
-Study done in early 1990s
-Psycologists K. Anders Ericson and 2 colleagues at Berlin's elite academy of music
-School's violinists divided into 3 groups
1) Stars- potential to be world class soloists
2) merely good
3) music teacher in the public school system
-Asked how many hours they have practiced
-Findings showed group 1 had over 10,000 hours, 2 had 8,000 and group 3 had 4,000
PIANISTS had same pattern
They could not find any "naturals" that went to top without practicing or "grinds" who worked incredibly had and could not make it up to top
Magic number for true expertise
roughly 10 years to put in hard practice
supported by neurologist Daniel Levitin
Need special program to work off the hours
Mozart thought of as prodigy but early on father wrote down most of time and original work that is considered a masterpiece wasn't written until he was 21
Tying 10,000 hours to Matthew Effect
small 9 or 10 year old not chosen in hockey for travel--> little practice --> not 10,000 hours
The nature of computer Programming
Programming with cards did not teach you programming but it taught you patience and proofreading
Computers powerful enough to handle more than one "appointment" at a time. No longer having to hand stacks of computer cards to operator.
Michigan's and Bill Joy's advantages
By 1967 prototype was up and running
By early 1970s, enough computer power that 100 people could be programming simultaneously
Programming not pain but fun now
- Bill Joy happened upon the college were he could program all he wanted
- Bill Joy lived on North Campus where center was
- t= k could program all you want (no charge)
- Practice on time-sharing system instead of punch cards
-Center opened 24 hours
Came to USA in Feb of 1964
Started craze of British music in America
In 1960 when just struggling high school band, invited to play in Hamburg, Germany
Bruno club owner who established connection with them
Playing 8 hours instead of 1 hour in Liverpool
By first burst of success in 1964, had performed live an estimated 1200 times. ----> more than some in entire career
Bill Gates Background
Drops out of Harvard and starts Microsoft
Father wealthy lawyer and mom daughter of well-to-do banker
Bored in public school
Beginning of 7th grade, Lakeside private school for elite families
Computer club his second year there
1968 the school got computers that wasn't punch cards but time sharing linked to downtown Seattle. Time sharing invented in 1965.
Started as an eighth grader!!!!
Bill Gate's Computer experience
- Expensive so club began running out of money
- Group of programmers at University of Washington formed an outfit called Computer Center Corporation or C-Cubed --> Leased computer time to local companies
- Monique Rona- founder- had son at Lakeside
- Test out the programs on the weekends in exchange for free programming time!--- Gates took bus to the office
- C-Cubed went bankrupt
- Hung out at computer center at UNW and came across outfit called ISI (Information Sciences Inc)---> free computer time in exchange for working on piece of software that could be used to automate company payrolls.
- 8 hours a day, 7 days a week
- Got kicked out for crashing system-> went between 3 and 6 because never scheduled anything
- Founder of ISI
- Got call from TRW- Tech company that had signed a contract to set up computer system at huge Bonneville Power Station in southern Washington State
- Called Gates and his high school friends who were familiar with the special program
- Senior year but convinced teachers to let him decamp for Bonneville for independent study project
-John Norton taught him so much
List of opportunities Gate had
1) He was sent to Lakeside
2) Mothers had enough money to pay for the school's computer fees
3) When money ran out, parents connected to C-Cubed
4)Gates found out about ISI and ISI happened to need someone to work on their software
5)Lived within walking distance of the University
6) free computer time between 3 and 6
7) TRW happened to call Pembroke who knew Gates
9) Lakeside was willing to let the kids spend their spring miles away
Example looking at wealth
14/75 are American born within 9 years of one another in mid nineteenth century.
1860s and 70s when US economy had transformation
- Wall Street
9 YEAR WINDOW
Born in 1840s-> too young
Born in 1820s-> too old still shaped by pre-civil War paradigm
Born in 1830s-> perfect
C. Wright Mills
Looked at backgrounds of the American business elite from Colonial era to 20th century. Business leaders come from privileged backgrounds
One exception? 1830s ----> Only time when modest circumstances had shot at real riches
Magazine associated with the most important date in history of personal computer revolution-> Jan. 1975
ran cover spry introducing Altair 8800-> do it yourself contraption that you could assemble at home
worlds first minicomputer kit
Day of a small and inexpensive computer that an ordinary person could buy and use
1975 Ages to enjoy new small and inexpensive contraption
TOO OLD IN 1975:
Have a job out of college at IBM-> making mainframes-> hard to transition-> why screw around with pathetic computers
FEW YEARS OUT OF COLLEGE IN 1975:
stable life with spouse, kids on way ---> old paradigm
Not going to give up pension or goofd job for a $397 computer kit
old enough to be a part of the coming revolution but not too old you missed. Want to be 20 or 21. Born between 1954 or 1955.
-Bill Gates perfect Age
-Paul Allen (Gate's friend) perfect age
- Steve Ballmer (3rd richest man at Microsoft) perfect
Grew up in Mountain View, Cali--> epicenter of Silicon Valley
Neighborhood filled with engineers + flea markets filed with gadgets
Went to lectures
Called Bill Hewlett (Hewlett-Packard engineer) and received parts + summer job
executive officer of google
1 versus 100
TV show where guest has to be smart enough to answer more questions correctly than 100 ordinary people. 1 million dollars on the line.
On 1 versus 100
Smartest man in America with 195 IQ
20/20 hired a neuropsychologist to give him a IQ test and it was off the charts--> IQ test then taken for people too smart for ordinary ones and got all right but one.
speaking at 6 months
perfect score on SAT even though he fell asleep
Took 250,000 in cash instead of finishing the game
IQ in 200 range
At 10 years old giving lectures
-- Young professor of psychology at Stanford
-- Met Henry Cowell: kid who hasn't been in school since seven. Works as janitor not to far from Stanford. Sneak away and play the school piano.
-- Founder of the Stanford-Benet IQ test
-- Gave Cowell an IQ test and he was 140
-- 1921 made gifted study his life work
--Large gran from Commonweath Foundation
--Looked at students in California's elementary schools: teachers choose brightest-> score in top 10% given second one-> score above 130 given a third one-> best and brightest selected
-1,470 kids above 140 up to 200.----> "TERMITES"-----> Lives recorded in detail----> accomplished people in Cali in their list!----> his termites were the future elite
His ideas remain central in way we think of success:
-School aptitude tests
-Google or Microsoft tech company cognitive ability tests for employees
higher the IQ score-> higher potential
Raven's Progressive Matrices
-Requires no language skills or specific body of acquired knowledge
-Measure of abstract reasoning skills
-Typical test has 48 items each one harder than the one before
-IQ calculated by how many items are correctly answered
Relationship between IQ and success
IQ of 70-> mentally disabled
IQ of 100-> average, barely capable of college
IQ of 115-> competitive graduate program ready
Once individual has 120 additional IQ points don't translate to any measurable real-world advantages
Just have to be tall enough- not much of difference between 6'2 and 6'3
Intelligence as a threshold
- 30% higher IQ does not mean 30% smarter
- Nobel Prize winners do not all come from the top universities
- be good enough
Barry Schwartz's Idea
Proposed elite schools give up their complex admission processes and simple hold a lottery:
Two groups: good enough and not good enough and then pull from good hat
University of Michigan Controversy
Policy of affirmative action
- relaxes entry requirements for individuals from disadvantageous backgrounds like minorities
- One attack went to US Supreme Court
- Troubling for some that an elite educational institution s letting in students whoa re less qualified than their peers
- Aftermath: minorities dong just as well in profession when expecting 2/3 glass full-> no serious discrepancies
-So minorities just as successful and not less qualified
- May not be better than whites but still above the threshold
- Requires you to use your imagination and take your mind in as many different directions as possible.
- Looks for number and uniqueness of your responses
- Measures more than just analytical skills but also creativity
-Better indicator of Nobel Prize winners maybe?
Harvard is not selecting studies on basis of creativity so it makes sense someone who wins could have gone to Holy Cross
failed to realize that just because these kids were at the absolute pinnacle of the intellectual scale did not mean much
-Some successful ones like legislators, authors, court justices, etc but FEW nationally known figures. GOOD incomes but not THAT good.
-No termites Nobel Prize Winners but tested two: denied because IQ wasn't high enough
If he had simply put together group of randomly selected children of same kind of backgrounds as Termites, the would have ended up with just as many impressive results as his termite genius group.
Intellect and achievement far from perfectly correlated.
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