Intro to Small Animal Mgmt - Anesthesia Part 1

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Analgesic
Any drug that helps alleviate or block pain without loss of consciousness
Examples of Analgesic's
NSAID'S
Narcotics
Topical
Anesthesia
-Eliminates pain; may render patient unconscious
-Pharmacologically induced
Reversible State of:
Amnesia
Analgesia
Loss of consciousness
Loss of skeletal muscle reflexes
Decreased stress response
Reasons to Use Anesthesia:
Examination
Restraint
Manipulation
Surgery
Control seizures or convulsions
Euthanasia
Three Basic Types of Anesthesia
Local
Regional
General
Local Anesthesia
-Agent works on neurons in a limited, specific area
-Not commonly used on animals or kids
Regional Anesthesia
-Loss of pain sensation In certain regions of the body
-Regional Blocks
-Commonly used during pregnancy
E.x.Epidural
General Anesthesia
Drug-induced loss of consciousness during which patients are not arousable, even by painful stimulation
-More commonly used on animals
Routes of administration
Parenteral
Inhalant
Parenteral
Most commonly Used
Cheaper and easier to maintain and don't last long
IV;IM;IP
SQ;ID
IV
Gives the most control of anesthetic effect
IM
Gives the least control of anesthetic effect
IP
Rarely ever done
SQ:ID
Primarily for locals
Inhalant
vaporizer takes the liquid anesthetic from the bottom of the machine when the oxygen hits the vaporizer, it vaporizes the liquid to gas, when you take the gas of then intubate them with tube into trachea to administer oxygen into the lungs; equipment is expensive and the person administering them must be extremely well trained
Chamber
Mask
Intubate
Most common
Inject the patient with IV first, then intubate them to maintain
Criteria to determine which type of Anesthesia to use
Species
Health status
Type of procedure/purpose
Duration
Post-op fate
Facilities
Legal aspects
Wildlife/Zoo Anesthesia Uses
Jab stick
Dart gun (Blow gun)
Drugs tend to be longer lasting (hours)
Reversible
Monitoring Animals Clinical Signs
Respiration (RR)
Circulation (HR)
Prefusion (CRT)
Muscle relaxation
Ocular
Corneal Reflex
The cornea doesn't react or move when touched if this reflex is lost
Palpebral Reflex
Touch the corner of patient's eye, if the eyelids don't close, the reflex is lost;used most commonly to determine the stage of anesthesia.
Vibrissae Reflex
The whisker doesn't move when touched if the response is lost; not the best indicator for depth of anesthesia
Laryngeal Reflex
Assesses the animals ability to swallow; pull the tongue out and if it stays the reflex is lost; common in a clinical setting; reflex must be gone before intubation
Pedal Reflex
Pinch back paw hard, and if there is no push back the reflex is lost; create pain to assess; common to assess the depth of anesthesia; can't start surgery until this reflex is lost
Righting Reflex
When you flip them over and they don't get up by themselves the reflex is lost
Order the Reflex's are lost
1. Righting
2. Laryngeal
3. Palpebral/Vibrissae
4.Corneal
5.Pedal
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