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(1) in their effectors, (2) in their efferent pathways, and (3) to some degree in target organ responses to their neurotransmitters.

list three ways in which the somatic and autonomic nervous system differ.

both systems have motor fibers

list one way in which the somatic and autonomic nervous systems are similar.


The ______ rami communicantes carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain


Which division of the nervous system has short preganglionic neurons?

Nicotinic; muscarinic

The two types of receptors that bind acetylcholine are _______ and _______ receptors.

NE and epinephrine are secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response

Why are sympathetic responses generally widespread?

cardiac, pulmonary, esophageal

As the vagus nerves pass into the thorax, they send branches to the _________ plexuses, __________ plexuses, and the _____________ plexuses.

abdominal aortic

In the abdominal cavity, they send fibers through the large ____________ ________ plexus.

Visceral pain afferents travel along the same pathways as somatic pain fibers.

Why might an individual experience the phenomenon known as "referred pain"?

kidneys, gallbladder, pancreas

name three organs the vagus nerve innervates.


The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is via the ________ nerve.


______-blockers decrease heart rate and blood pressure

terminal ganglia

Parasympathetic ganglia are also called what because of their location?

norepinephrine; postsynaptic

Drugs that prolong the activity of _______________ on the ____________ membrane help to relieve depression.

trunk; sympathetic; sympathetic

Once a preganglionic axon reaches a trunk ganglion, one of three things can happen to the axon: (1) The axon can synapse with a ganglionic neuron in the same ________ ganglion; (2) The axon can ascend or descend the ___________ trunk to synapse in another trunk ganglion; (3) The axon can pass through the trunk ganglion and emerge from the ___________ trunk without synapsing.


Autonomic ganglia contain the cell bodies of ________ neurons.

dilation of the pupils

Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?
- salivation
- dilation of the pupils
- elimination of urine
- increased peristalsis of the digestive viscera

coronary blood vessels, cellular metabolism

Which of the following target organs/systems is affected by the sympathetic nervous system, but not affected by the parasympathetic nervous system?
- Gallblader
- Salivary glands
- Coronary blood vessels
- Cellular metabolism

a two-neuron motor pathway

What differentiates an autonomic reflex from a somatic reflex?

Parasympathetic stimulation causes vasodilation of blood vessels in the penis, leading to erection; sympathetic stimulation then causes ejaculation

Which of the following best demonstrates an example of cooperation of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems?
- Sympathetic stimulation causes vasodilation of blood vessels in the penis, leading to erection; parasympathetic stimulation then causes ejaculation.
- Sympathetic stimulation causes vasodilation of blood vessels in the clitoris, leading to erection; parasympathetic stimulation then causes reflex contractions of the vagina.
- Parasympathetic stimulation causes vasodilation of blood vessels in the penis, leading to erection; sympathetic stimulation then causes ejaculation.
- Parasympathetic stimulation causes copious sweating; sympathetic stimulation causes epidermal pores to dilate.

sympathetic postganglionic neurons

Which autonomic neurons release norepinephrine as a neurotransmitter?

somatic motor fibers

thick, heavily myelinated, group A fibers

preganglionic axons

lightly myelinated thin fibers

postganglionic axons

thin, unmyelinated fibers

autonomic ganglion

cell bodies of postganglionic neurons


___________ fibers secrete norepinephrine

prevertebral (collateral) sympathetic ganglia

non-paired and non-segmented ganglia that lie anterior to the vertebral column

paravertebral sympathetic ganglia

segmented and paired ganglia that lie close to the spinal cord

splanchnic nerves

sympathetic preganglionic fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic trunks without synapsing


___________ receptors ==> motor end plates of skeletal muscles


___________ receptors ==> eccrine sweat glands

beta 1 adrenergic

______ __ __________ receptors ==> the heart

alpha 1

_______ __ receptors ==> blood vessels serving the skin, mucosae

beta 3

_______ __ receptors ==> adipose tissue


__________ receptors ==> ACh; stimulatory


___________ receptors ==> ACh; either inhibitory or stimulatory (depending on the target organ)

alpha adrenergic

_______ ____________ receptors ==> NE or epinephrine; usually excitatory

beta adrenergic

______ _____________ receptors ==> NE or epinephrine; usually inhibitory

beta blockers

reduce heart rate and prevent arrhythmias without interfering with other sympathetic effects


asympathomimetic agent that binds beta 2 receptors dilating the bronchioles; used to treat asthma


an anticholinesterase; used to treat myasthenia gravis


amuscarinic agent; used in the treatment of glaucoma

cortical controls

________ ___________ ==> memory of frightening events causing a sympathetic response

raynaud's disease

exaggerated vasoconstriction response to cold or emotional stress (occurs in fingers and toes)


cutting or severing of the vagus nerve to decrease secretion of gastric juice in patients with peptic ulcers who do not respond to medication

adrenal medulla

in parasympathetic actions the ________ _________ has no innervation.


in parasympathetic actions the ___________ excites.


Ninety percent of all the preganglionic parasympathetic fibers are found in the _________ nerve.


Acetylcholine binds to which type of receptor located on smooth muscle, glands, and cardiac muscle?

the distal half of the large intestine

The sacral part of the parasympathetic division serves which of the following organs?


Sympathetic postganglionic fibers release ____________.

postganglionic sympathetic

The heart is served by ____________ ____________ fibers from the middle and inferior cervical ganglion.


TRUE or FALSE: Nicotine is not the neurotransmitter. It is a drug that binds to this cholinergic receptor and stimulates the effect of acetylcholine.


Stimulation of nicotinic receptors always causes ____________.


TRUE or FALSE: Cold, sweaty skin is a sign of sympathetic activity.

the thoracic splanchnic

Which of the splanchnic nerves terminates in the adrenal gland?


All preganglionic fibers release ____________.


Receptors for ACh are called ___________ receptors.


Effectors of the somatic nervous system have __________ receptors.


___________ effects dominate the heart and the smooth muscle of digestive and urinary organs.


___________ effects dominate smooth muscle of blood vessels.

target organs

The autonomic nervous system differs from the somatic nervous system in its ________ ________.


Most postsynaptic sympathetic fibers use __________ as their neurotransmitter.

dual innervation

_______ ___________ means that both the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system supply an organ.


the ________________ nerve synapses in the otic ganglia.


The presence of numerous preganglionic sympathetic neurons in the gray matter of the spinal cord produces the __________ horns.


The white rami cummunicantes are composed of _______________ fibers

gray rami

The postganglionic sympathetic axons enter the adjoining spinal nerves by way of the _______ ________ communicantes

myelinated or not

The rami cummunicantes are designated white or gray depending on whether they are __________.

adrenal medulla

Embryonically, the sympathetic ganglia and the __________ __________ arise from the same tissue.

long; short; short; long

The parasympathetic division has ______ preganglionic neurons and ______ postganglionic neurons, whereas the sympathetic division has ______ preganglionic neurons and ______ postganglionic neurons.


The __________ division of the autonomic nervous system has its ganglia near the effector organs.

beta 2

Albuterol used to treat asthma binds to _______ ___ and causes bronchiole dilation.


As the vagus nerves pass into the thorax, they send branches to the cardiac plexuses supplying fibers to the heart that ______ heart rate.


TRUE or FALSE: The sympathetic division is anatomically more complex than the parasympathetic division

at the same level, synapse at a higher or lower level, or synapse in a distant collateral

list three ways the preganglionic and postganglionic axons can synapse

acetylcholine; norepinephrine

__________ and __________ are the major neurotransmitters released by autonomic nervous system neurons.


TRUE or FALSE: Norepinephrine and epinephrine can have either excitatory or inhibitory effects on target organs.

They interfere with (block) the activity of vasomotor fibers that control blood vessel tone.

Why do doctors sometimes prescribe drugs called "sympatholytic agents" to treat hypertension?

cerebral cortex

The __________ _________ may subconsciously modify the workings of the autonomic nervous system.


TRUE or FALSE: Autonomic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus.


TRUE or FALSE: Blood "shunting" helps maintain circulation to vital organs during circulatory shock.

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