45 terms

World Religions Basics

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Israel
Jewish promised land and country created following World War II.
Synagogue
Jewish house of worship
Shema
Jewish prayer recited daily
Talmud
Jewish religious and civil laws that apply to modern day life based on the Old Testament teachings
Sabbath
Day of rest and religious dedication
Messiah
Deliverer of the Jews; Christians recognize Jesus as it, but Jewish people are still waiting
Torah
The first five books of the Old Testament of the Bible; most important for Jewish teachings
One God
Central idea common to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Passover
Celebrates the Jews freedom from slavery in Egypt and Moses' plague in which the Angel of Death killed all the first born males in Egypt
Bar/Bat Mitzvah
Celebration of a Jewish boy or girl at the age of 13, when the Jewish laws begin to apply fully to their lives
Holocaust
Main tragedy of the Jewish people in the 20th century
Hanukkah
Jewish Feast that celebrates the recovery and purification of the Temple by the Maccabees
Orthodox
Conforming to traditional beliefs and doctrine, especially religion
Islam
Means surrender
Muslims
Followers of Islam
Alms
Charity given to the poor, found in almost all of the major religions
Prayer Facing Mecca
Conducted five times a day by Muslims
Ramadan
Month of fasting for Muslims
Architecture
Major Islamic contribution to the West
Koran
The most sacred book of Islam
Muhammad
Man who founded Islam
Hajj
Pilgrimage (journey) to Mecca
Mecca
Holiest city of Islam, located in Saudi Arabia
Holy Bible (Old and New Testaments)
Most sacred book to Christians
Gospels
First four books of the New Testament; they contain the sayings and stories about Jesus
Baptism
Symbolic practice of washing away sins and becoming clean in God's eyes
Lord's Supper
Celebrate the last meal before Jesus' crucifixion
Fundamentalists
Members of a religious group that believe their holy text is completely, literally true
Jerusalem
Holy location for Christians, Jews, and Muslims
Hinduism
Main religion of India; most of its followers are vegetarian
Reincarnation
Belief that a person is reborn following death
Meditation
Practice which involves sitting quietly and repeating an expression or sound to help focus the mind
Ganges
River considered holy by Hindus
Caste System
The social status or position that Hindus believe all people are born into
Guru
a Hindu or Buddhist religious leader and spiritual teacher
Raga
sacred musical composition usually for the sitar and tabla
The oldest religion that is still practiced
Hinduism
Nirvana
Goal of Buddhists
Enlightenment
Achieved by Siddartha Guatama while sitting under a tree
Karma
In Hinduism and Buddhism, the totality of a person's good and bad deeds, which is believed to determine his or her fate after rebirth
Mahayana Buddhism
Followed in China, Japan, and Central Asia. The focus is on reverence for Buddha almost to a god-like status
Theravada Buddhism
Followed in Sri Lanka and much of Southeast Asia. It remains close to the original principles set forth by the Buddha; it downplays the importance of gods
Middle Way
Avoiding the extremes of either comfort or discomfort in the search for nirvana.
Monks
Receive support from community. They return the favor by teaching the community about the religion.
Life is Suffering
What the Buddha taught
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