82 terms

MUSC205 Exam Two

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The Beach Boys, Pet Sounds
Classic album, inspired by Beatles' Rubber Soul
Perhaps rock's first concept album

Diverse and unusual instrumentation; experimental
"Wouldn't It Be Nice" (from Pet Sounds)
The importance of instrumentation
Remarkable singing
Fantasy of Marital Bliss
Beach Boys, "Good Vibrations"
Result of six months work in the studio
Unconventional in every way
Unusual form and instrumentation (organ, flutes, harpsichord, sleigh bells etc.)
Most exotic of all: the theremin
The song is about sound, not sense
a milestone in the history of rock production(started work on "surf's up" after this
Urban Folk Music
Baby Boomers grow up, seek music with more depth
Folk Music defined
Folk associated with working-class, rural southerners
Then adopted by urban society
Acoustic Guitar favored; authentic
Bob Dylan
Embodied the 60s folk movement
Later embraced rock
Established himself in New York in early 60s
Stood out for the originality and intensity of his songs and perfor
The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan
Album politicized 60s folk music
EX. "Blowin' in the Wind," a civil rights anthem
Other songs deal with similarly important social issues
Dylan used the folk tradition to talk about current issues
1965: The Crucial Year
Bob Dylan goes Rock with "Bringing it all Back Home"
-Folk Rock Album; EX. "Subterranean Homesick Blues": his first top 40 hit
Dylan's Single, "Like a Rolling Stone" (1965)
-Ended restrictions on length, subject matter for top 40 songs; Six+ minutes and a top 10 hit
The Byrds cover of Dylan's "Mr. Tambourine Man" hits no. 1
Newport Folk Festival
-Bob Dylan booed for playing electric guitar
Dylan summarized
The most influential white American pop musician of the 60s
1965: birth of folk rock
Expanded subject matter for rock
Showed rock how to deal with something other than dance or romance
The Rolling Stones and other British Invaders
British Invasion included the Kinks, the Who, the Animals, and many others
Most significant were The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones
Music:
Rooted in Chicago blues
Guitar-centered sound
Unforgettable guitar riffs
Lyrics about sex, Satan, violence
Mick Jagger (vocals) and Keith Richards (guitar) wrote many rock classics
Image: Crude, tough image
"Would you let your daughter marry a Rolling Stone?"
Promoted as bad-boy opposites to the clean-cut Beatles
Stones first and foremost a live band
Stones defined hard rock?
Stones invented the Big Tour!
Stones define Big Business in rock
"(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction" (1965)
Keith Richards: rock's greatest riffmeister
Lyrics are pure teenage aggression, but clever:
Stones "Satisfaction" brought attention to the fuzz box
Many guitar "effects" followed
Beggars Banquet-Rolling Stones Album
By 1968, a darker, malevolent image
EX. "Sympathy For The Devil"
EX. "Street Fighting Man"
Released at the height of international protest
Banned by radio stations
Compositional process, lo-tech recording
The Kinks
Kinks largely created power chord rock with "You Really Got Me" (1964)
The Who
Famous for live performances: energy, violence, volume
Innovation
Tommy (1969)
The first rock opera
Elements of opera (narrative, thematic reminiscences)
Sound and attitude of rock
EX. "Pinball Wizard"
Stones vs Who
The Stones looked back, drew on rock's roots
The Who looked forward: progressive and ambitious
The Beatles, Sgt. Peppers' Lonely Hearts Club Band
Released during the Summer of Love(1967)
Concept Album
Reflected the Counterculture
The famous cover
Evoked Indian classical music (with sitar etc.): "Within You Without You"
Evoked drugs: EX. "Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds"
Studio wizardry
Recording technology: four-track tape machine
The studio is now a place of musical creation, not just performance
Changes in rock in the late 1960s
Beatles, Beach Boys, Dylan and others expand the genre
Rock 'n' roll becomes "rock," more self-consciously artistic
Experimentation leads to new hybrid genres
Late 1960s: social and musical experimentation
Open attitudes about sex
Civil Rights movement, Vietnam War
A time of uncertainty
The "counterculture"
Label for innovative, rebellious, and radical 60s culture
Closely connected with rock
Many counterculture musicians were veterans of the 60s folk movement
The San Francisco scene
Center of the counterculture
Home of pyschedelic (acid) rock music
Highly experimental
Jefferson Airplane
"The Ballad of You and Me and Pooniel"
Acid Tests, Bill Graham, Venues, Tom Donohue
First SF band to hit nationally; Signed by the major label RCA
The Grateful Dead
Known for live performances, the original jam band
Devoted fans (Deadheads)
Business models years ahead of their time
Experimental, improvisational, long jams
Developed in live performance
John Coltrane showed how: Group improvisation; Variation
Other aspects of Acid Rock
Light shows:
Evoke the psychedelic experience
Part of the total music experience
Poster art
Folk Rock and Country Rock
Developed side by side, both inspired by Dylan
Folk Rock: The Byrds
The first folk-rock hit: a cover of Dylan's "Mr. Tambourine Man" (1965)
Byrds added vocal harmonies to Dylan's electric folk sound
Dylan suggested folk rock; the Byrds perfected and sold it
"Eight Miles High"
Unearthly sound
Banned by radio stations
Coltrane influence again
Buffalo Springfield
Also important in developing folk rock
Stephen Stills, Neil Young
Country Rock
Late 60s, early 70s: country sound returns to rock
Dylan and The Byrds led the way again
The Byrds, Sweethearts of the Rodeo
First serious exploration of country by rock musicians
Gram Parsons
James Brown
Profound influence on popular music
Great performer and bandleader
Ignores grammar and meaning
It's about emotion, conveyed through rhythm and timbre
Live at the Apollo (1963): groundbreaking live album
James Brown, "Papa's Got A Brand New Bag" (1965)
Few chord changes, little melody
Rhythm is everything
This is Funk!
"Papa's Got A Brand New Bag" defines the future: funk, disco, hip-hop, EDM
Brown is the most frequently sampled artist in hip-hop
Urban unrest 1967-1968
Riots and the "Long Hot Summer" (1967)
Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. (April 4, 1968)
Soul music and Black Power
Martin Luther King: integration
Malcolm X: separation
Black Power: a political manifesto
Black Panther Party
Blacks asserting their identity and independence
James Brown, "Say It Loud, I'm Black and I'm Proud"
JB raps; spokesman for african-americans
Anticipates early hip hop:
In musical style
In emphasis on the black experience as subject matter
Aretha Franklin, The Queen of Soul
Singer, composer, keyboardist, arranger
Gospel background
First great album: I Never Loved A Man The Way I Love You (1967)
"Respect" Originally an Otis Redding song
No. 1 Pop and R&B
Strong political and social statements
Embodied female power
Inspired generations of singers
Southern Soul Music
Stax Records, Memphis: the birthplace of southern soul music
Stax house band: Booker T and the MGs
Stax was racially integrated, music created by blacks and whites together
Wilson Pickett, "In The Midnight Hour"
Written by Pickett and Steve Cropper (of Booker T and the MGs)
Produced by Jerry Wexler
Southern soul is raw, powerful
Rebirth of rock multiculturalism
Sly and the Family Stone and Santana brought African American and Latin American perspectives back to rock
Sly and the Family Stone
Led by Sly Stone, who created a truly original sound
Mix of jazz, soul, funk, psychedelic rock, socially conscious folk
Mixed-race and mixed-gender group a symbol for the times
Wrote songs about tolerance and
Santana
Led by guitarist Carlos Santana
Fused psychedelic rock rock with jazz and salsa
"Oye Como Va"
Cha cha cha rhythm
Guitar Gods
Late 1960s: a new generation of guitarists re-define the electric guitar
Eric Clapton
Influenced by Robert Johnson and B. B. King
Played with the Yardbirds, Cream, and as soloist
Cream
The first "supergroup"
The first "power trio" (guitar, drums, bass)
Famous for long blues-based improvisations
"Cross Road Blues" (1936) and "Crossroads" (1968)
Robert Johnson, "Crossroad Blues" (1936)
Robert Johnson's influence
Acoustic guitar, mostly chordal
Cream, "Crossroads" (1968)
Cream's version of "Cross Road Blues," recorded live
Johnson's chords reduced to a riff
Volume, distortion, emphasis on the guitar
Monterey Pop Festival
The first big rock festival
Launched careers of Hendrix and Joplin
Jimi Hendrix
The most original and influential guitarist in rock
Guitar showmanship
Expanded the sonic potential of the guitar
Albums, not singles (this is rock)
Songs inspired by psychedelic experimentation
"Purple Haze":A shift in the balance of power: guitar more important than the voice; "Psychedelic Blues"
"Star Spangled Banner":Improvised at Woodstock (1969): a tour de force
Hendrix explored the borderline between "music" and noise
Hendrix, "All Along The Watchtower"
Dylan's lyrics plus Hendrix's guitar
Great psychedelic guitar solo
Ends with word painting ("howl")
Heavy Blues
Cream and Hendrix: extremely loud, riff-based songs provided a prototype for heavy metal
The Big Picture: Late 60s
An era of protest, experimentation
New recording technology
Musicians take on political and social roles (Sly Stone, James Brown, Jimi Hendrix etc.)
Artists from other cultural traditions find a place in rock
Hendrix, Clapton (and Jimmy Page) transform the electric guitar and its role
1970s
The "Me Decade" (Tom Wolfe)
A turning inward
Focus on domestic problems
environmental and sexual politics
Deaths of '60s rock icons
Rock comes of age
Progressive rockers see themselves as "Artists"
Album format preferred
The Rock Album
The album as thematically and aesthetically unified work
Song sequence carefully planned
Some approaches to the album
Fictitional character (e.g., Bowie, Ziggy Stardust)
Philosophical theme (e.g., Pink Floyd, Dark Side of the Moon)
Political theme (e.g., Gaye, What's Going On)
David Bowie
Pioneer of glam (glamor) rock
The artist as "brand": Bowie's genius for re-inventing himself
Theatrical performance: costumes, makeup, lighting
Concert as carefully choreographed "show"
Rock's infrastructure
Music Industry:
Consolidation
Profits reach new heights
LPs and cassettes
FM Radio:
Stereo, improved sound
Venues:
Clubs and ballrooms give way to arenas and stadiums
A communal experience
Pink Floyd
Acid rock band led by Syd Barrett from 1965-1968
Barrett replaced by David Gilmour, Roger Waters becomes leader
Innovative live shows
Dark Side Of The Moon:Concept album on theme of madness
Mellotron & Synthesizer
Revolutionary instrument
Uses electrical signals to create sound
Marvin Gaye, What's Going On
The political: album unified by theme of social justice
Expressions of Rock Culture
Album art
-LP as art object
-LP covers reflect aesthetics, personalities of groups
Merchandising
-T-shirts, posters etc. a profitable business
Rock press
-The birth of rock criticism: Creem, Rolling Stone
An "alternative press" developed by the counterculture
Led Zeppelin and Hard Rock
First Heavy Metal Band
Led Zeppelin (1969)
Debut album
Songs built on riffs
New interpretations of traditional Chicago blues tunes
"How Many More Times": uses the wah-wah pedal
Mid 70s: the biggest rock group in the world
Broke up 1980, popularity has continued
Inspired countless metal and prog rock groups
Jimmy Page:
Remarkable guitar playing
Remarkable production
"Rock gods" lifestyle
"Stairway to Heaven"
Joins the two main aspects of their style: hard rock and a softer folk style
Lyrics explore myth, mysticism
Sectional structure: a grand crescendo (density, volume, speed)
Marketing strategy
Copyright trial
Led Zeppelin, "Kashmir
Spirituality
Patterns inspired by Moroccan and Middle Eastern music
Sectional structure (again)
Stadium Rock (Arena Rock)
A music-making approach prominent in mid-70s
Grandiose, especially stagecraft
Goal: to create an exciting audiovisual experience for large crowds
*look up what a "rock star" is defined as**
Peter Frampton
Enormous success with Frampton Comes Alive (1976)
EX. "Show Me The Way"
The Heil Talk Box
Heavy Metal Theater: Alice Cooper
A pioneer of rock theater
Elaborate (and degenerate) shows
EX. "School's Out" (1972)
KISS
For a time, the foremost stadium rock act
Extravagant makeup, circus-like shows
Ruthlessly commercial (action figures, comic books etc.)
Southern Rock
Associated with white, southern heritage
But built on black American music (blues, boogie-woogie)
Distinguished by its subject matter
The Allmann Brothers Band
Established southern rock as a genre
Connected blues and boogie with rock and jam band improvisation
Led by guitarist Duane Allmann
Breakthrough was live album At Fillmore East (1971)
Call and response
Lynyrd Skynyrd
The other famous southern rock band
"Freebird" (1973), "Sweet Home Alabama" (1974)
Political implications of Southern Rock
Confederate iconography
"Southern Man" vs. "Sweet Home Alabama"
Creedence Clearwater Revival
Deliberately old fashioned: the first great "roots" rock band
Enormous commercial success
Songs written and sung by John Fogerty
Jazz Rock
Popular music is fusion
Jazz rock pioneered by Miles Davis
Miles Davis, Bitches Brew (1970)
Combined acoustic jazz instruments with electric rock instruments
Combined jazz improvisation with rock grooves
Chicago
Commercial success
Fused rock with jazz horns and arrangements
Singer Songwriters (Soft Rock)
1970s: Baby boomers maturing
1970s: divorce rate climbing
Carole King
Began as Brill Building songwriter
Solo success with Tapestry, the best selling album of 1971
Mature perspectives on love
Elton John
Singer-songwriter/glam rocker
Traditional, carefully crafted songs written with Bernie Taupin
Immense commercial success: the no. 1 selling pop artist of the 1970s
Country rock in the 1970s: The Eagles
California-based country rock band
Commercial success: popularized country rock in the 70s
EX. "Hotel California"
Punk Rock
The first "alternative" music?
Music of a new generation
Angry, minimalist, back to basics
Born in New York at CBGB (Country, Blue Grass, and Blues)
A musical and cultural rebellion
Punk fashion
DIY ("Do It Yourself"): the first rule of punk
Bands learned music on the job
Punk empowered women
Ancestors of Punk: The Velvet Underground
Promoted by pop artist Andy Warhol
Led by singer/guitarist Lou Reed and avant-garde violist John Cale
Ambitious writing, experimental noise-rock
Lyrics: sexual deviancy, drug addiction, alienation
Ancestors of Punk: The Stooges
A "working class" take on punk
Led by Iggy Pop
Outrageous stage performances
Music expresses anger and frustration
The Ramones
The first bona-fide punk rock band
A 50s rebel look
Music: back to basics, stripped-down rock
Debut album: The Ramones (1976)
Fast, two-minute songs, high-energy guitar attack, ironic lyrics
Huge in England
Talking Heads
Self-consciously artistic
Influenced by minimalism
Image of nerdy college students
EX. "Psycho Killer" (1977)
Punk in London
Mid-70s: Economic hard times
Rise of Margaret Thatcher and the New Right
Sex Pistols
With the Clash, exemplified British punk rock
Music stripped down: speed, noise (anti-music?)
Guitars, bass, drums only
A music of anger, frustration, chaos