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SOC 302 Gillham Midterm Key Terms
Terms in this set (97)
-Created Positivism: The search for invariant laws of both the natural and social world. These laws from doing research on the social world and from theorizing about the world.
-Believed that facts derived from research are of secondary importance to sound speculation.
-Positivism involves empirical research, but research is subordinated to theory.
Auguste Comte (cont.)
-Traced blame for the French Revolution on the coexistence of all three "Incompatible philosophies".
1.) Theological stage 2.) Metaphysical stage 3.) Positivist stage.
-First to use the term Sociology.
-Influenced Spencer and Durkheim.
-Believed the study of sociology should be scientific.
Contractual Solidarity's Issues
-Egoism would lead to Hobbesian War (All v All). Self-interest provides no basis for Trust.
-Contracts would be too hard to negotiate Every Time.
-Thus Rules exist Before the Contract (Pre-Contractual).
-Rules Regulate what Contracts are and which contracts are Valid.
-Rules Recognize how a Party's assent to a contract may be obtained.
-Rules that regulate the Consequences of the Contract.
Resources that benefit everyone regardless of whether they contribute to its maintenance. Cannot be excluded.
Free Rider Problem
Someone who benefits from public goods but doesn't contribute back. The problem arises when someone CAN contribute but doesn't, even though they are benefiting from the public good.
Tragedy of the Commons
When a limited resource is taken advantage of by individual self-interest at the expense of the common good.
The Great Transformation
Changes in political, economical, and social facets in society in the 18th and 19th centuries.
a period of remarkable intellectual development and change in philosophical thinking. The influence on the enlightenment to soc. Theory is more indirect and negative than it was direct and positive.
Declaration of the Rights of Man (1789)
Asserted the reality of individual freedom. Rule of Law- determined how people are judged. New category - Citizen.
Pre-sociological views on social order
God, King, and Tradition are an unquestionable and external authority. Sociology allowed for a different narrative aside from the theology.
A set of interrelated ideas that allow for systemization of the social world. Ways of defining social order.
The study of principles of social order.
Subject Matter of Social Theory
-Concern about Individual's relation to society & its collective unity.
-Economic Development leads to the growth of capitalism.
-Economic and political consequences led to the fall of feudalism - redefined solidarity.
-By 1830s capitalism replaced feudalism.
-Land = a commodity
-Peasants become a landless class
-Working class & wage laborer
-Growth of markets
Rise of Individualism
Individualism emerged from enlightenment & French revolution.
William Graham Sumner
Taught the First Course called Sociology in the US. Major supporter of Social Darwinism.
Quote: "There are no rights. The world owes nobody a living."
-Survival of the fittest approach to the social world
First President of the American Sociological Society. Believed there should be "Applied Sociology". Wanted to make the world a better place, through social reform.
Conspicuous Consumption (Consuming to stand out from others).
Capitalists are the "leisure class" they engage in conspicuous leisure (non-productive use of time) and conspicuous consumption (spending excess $ on goods)
- Early on, strong connection to religion
-Home for Symbolic Interactionism.
-Stressed Identifying Positive and Negative effects of Urbanization & Industrialization
-Thomas: (Abstract → empirical) How people think defines what they do
-Park: Emphasized personal observation, published first textbook
-Cooley: Consciousness is shaped by social interaction, rejected behavioristic views
-Mead: Symbolic Interactionism/Psychological Behavior
W.E.B. Du Bois
-Race Theory, Double Consciousness
-Public intellectual who founded civil rights organizations such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
-Social Darwinism. Survival of the Fittest. Utilitarian. Durkheim used Spencer as a 'straw man'.
-Wrote in English, non-technical terms with a scientific orientation. Was seen as soothing and people could take/see what they wanted from his research.
Abdel Rahman Ibin-Khaldun
Born in Tunis, North Africa 1332. Studied the Koran and stressed the importance of linking sociological thought and historical observation.
Weber's Contemporary, cofounder of German Sociological Society. Profound effect on American Sociological Theory. Helped shape the Chicago School. Worked on micro issues instead of macro.
Dominated German thought in late nineteenth century. An Idealist compared to Marx's Realism. Helped shape Marx. Two concepts, dialectic and idealism
is both a way of thinking and an image of the world. It is a dynamic rather than static view of the world made up of processes, relationships, dynamics, conflicts and contradictions.
emphasizes the importance of the mind and mental products rather than the material world. It is the social definition of the physical and material worlds that matters most, not those worlds themselves. Only the Mind and Psychological Constructs Exists.
Bridge between Hegel & Marx. God is a projection of ourselves.
Social Solidarity is rooted in Trust
-Rise of the Individual becoming more important.
-Stresses the Social Dimension of Human Phenomenon.
-Engages in scientific study of social world by analyzing "Social Facts".
-Concerned about maintenance of social order & social solidarity.
-Explores social change, DOL, types of laws and religion.
Over integration, Strong collective conscience which dominates the life the individual
Ex: suicide bomber
-Common to modern societies, urban centers
-Lost sight of what to do with self
Ex: New college students
Ex: Slaves, servants, prisoner
Low integration, weak CC
-consequence of rise of the individual
Ex: CEO, divorcee
lack of the usual social or ethical standards in an individual or group
-Thoughts and values shared by a society/community
-All religions have one
A set of beliefs and values. Core Ideals that share norms and regulations. Basis for Trust. Shared Morality.
Shared intense emotions experienced in rituals. Creative. Recreative.
Is an act that offends the strong, well defined lines of the collective consciousness.
Cult of the Individual
The new C.C. Irreversible Trend: As DOL grows, so does individualism. Not just egoism but extension of feelings of sympathy for others. Individualism grounds freedom in a communal solidarity. Affirms rights of individual in relation to well-being for all.
Division Of Labor
Helps create Solidarity. "...the economic services that it can render are insignificant compared with the moral effect that it produces, and its true function is to create between two people a feeling of solidarity.
-Utilitarians: Believe Contractual obligations exist between people.
-Durkheim: Functionally Integrated Systems of Specialized roles Within a Society.
Durkheim quote #1
"When we obey somebody because of the moral authority which we recognize in him, we follow out his opinions, not because they seem wise, but because a certain sort of physical energy is imminent in the idea that we form of this person, which conquers our will and inclines it in the indicated direction. Respect is the emotion which we experience when we fell this interior and wholly spiritual pressure operation upon us."
Durkheim quote #2
"Religious representations are collective representations which express collective reality; the rites are a manner of acting which take rise in the midst of the assembled groups & which are destined to excite, maintain or recreate certain mental states in these groups..."
- (More people, more interactions).
-Competition of resources
-Struggle for survival.
Functional & Causal explanations
Social Explanation requires both.
-Collective Actions Impact Society
-Examines Phenomena based on chronology/historical data.
'Causal' Explanation of Shift from Mechanical Sol. to Organic Sol.
Increased Dynamic Density (More people, more interactions).
-Competition of resources
-Struggle for survival.
-Chronological/ historical developments
'Functional' Explanations of Shift from Mechanical Sol. to Organic Sol.
Society has functional social structures. Phenomena examined based on: Consequences and Contribution to Social Order.
-Increasing Complexity of DOL
-Differentiation of DOL allows for Complementary Roles.
-Greater Efficiency = More Survival
-We no longer fight over resources
Functions of Religion
Degree that collective sentiments are shared.
Degree of external constraint on individuals.
- Individuals not Essential.
-Undifferentiated Division of Labor (DOL).
- Mechanical - Consciousness extension of Collective.
- Collective Conscience very Strong & Concrete.
- Greater and Refined DOL
- Organic - Parts carry out own unique actions.
- Collective Conscience is weak. More abstract with less constraint on society.
A unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things which unite into a single moral community called a church all those who adhere to them.
Laws that leads to punishment that imposes Injury on the perpetrator. Primarily with Mechanical Solidarity.
Leads to punishment that restores a condition to the time before.
Rules prescribing how to behave in the presence of sacred.
Performance of rites, reinforcing feelings of Solidarity.
Set apart as special
A triangular relationship of Group/Clan to Individual to Totem. All three held together by CC. Individual is constituted through shared socialization by CC. Group is constituted by CC. Totem is not powerful by itself, object is held sacred, a representation of the CC, so in the end they are worshipping themselves
Social Phenomena which are:
-To be treated objectively (exist empirically)
-External institutional patterns (recurrent)
-Coercive to the individual
Durkheim described Social Facts as: "Forces and Structures that are external to, and coercive of, the individual.
Collective Emotions that have greater influence over an individual than her/his own emotions. E.G Mass grief over 9/11 attacks greater influence than feelings of birthday joy.
Social Solidarity = Power
-Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat
-Exploitation and Alienation
-Critique of Capitalism
State of disruption to the living process. Estranged from the products they make. (The division of labor and establishment of private property leads to a separating of the individual from what he or she produces, and from the conditions that support his or her existence).
1.) Productive activity
3.) Fellow Workers
4.) Human Potential
Control the means of production
The raw materials and machinery used in the production of commodities
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
Bourgeoisie vs the Proletariat in Marx's eyes
Group of individuals who share a common position in relation to the means of production
awareness of one's place in a system of social classes, especially (in Marxist terms) as it relates to the class struggle
Product of labor intended for $ Exchange. In capitalism everything has a price
An economic and social system envisioned by Marx. In theory, under communism, all means of production are owned in common, rather than by individuals In practice, a single authoritarian party controls both the political and economic systems
A subjective awareness of common vested interests and the need for collective political action to bring about social change.
"It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but, on the contrary, their social being that determines their consciousness.
According to Hegel, a three step pattern in which an original idea, known as a thesis struggles with a contrary idea, known as an antithesis to produce a new synthesis that combines elements of both
Marx thought this was the structure of Society
Systemic misrepresentation of material, ideological, and institutional processes in capitalist society to the proletariat for their subordination
Fetishism of Commodities
-Shared belief that natural & inevitable that products should be valued w/money.
-Treatment of products as:
- Independent from needs or decisions.
-Disconnected from their labor. Gives excess devotion to products.
-Endows products with magical powers
Marx and Engels argue that men distinguish themselves from animals as soon as they being to produce their means of subsistence
-looks for the causes of developments and changes in human society in the means by which humans collectively produce the necessities of life. Social classes and the relationship between them, along with the political structures and ways of thinking in society, are founded on and reflect contemporary economic activity
-History is a series of contradictions
-Thesis v antithesis
-a system of ideas through which people use to understand their world.
the work by which we appropriate nature, the activity by which we produce use-values.
Marx quote #1
: "A spectre is haunting Europe - The spectre of Communism. All the powers of old Europe have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this spectre: Pope and Tsar, etc." - The Communist Manifesto
Marx quote #2
"Money is the pimp between man's need and the object, between his life and his means of life" -Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts on 1844
Means (or forces) of production
-The physical inputs used for production of economic value
-the tools, facilities, machinery etc.
Modes of production
The way or manner in which production is organized in terms of relationships between labor & upper class.
-Tribal (communal property)
Communism (communal prop.)
Actions oriented towards changing society. -Must do more than theorize, need concrete action informed by theory.
Fetishism is allowed to occur because we 'reify' things. Belief that a product has a life of its own. We divorce the product from the labor underpinnings of the product.
Relations of production
-in philosophical Marxism, relationships of production consist of who does what, who owns what, and how this affects members of both groups; a part of the substructure of society.
-Material world of labor
-Realm where class conflict occurs
-Religion, philosophy, education, and state
-comes from the difference between the cost of labor and the value added by labor.
Marx's Contradictions of Capitalism
-Overproduction/Under-consumption - cycle of crises
-Centralization of capital -
-Proletarianization- petit bourgeoisie becoming proletariat, and then rising up against the bourgeoisie
-Immiseration- # of impoverished workers
-Urbanization and increased concentration of workers
-Communication between workers
-Politicization- creates opportunity for revolution
Uses their labor as a commodity
Strengths of Durkheim
-Identifies the complexity of society (need for solidarity ad trust)
-Provides understanding of social instability i.e. suicide
-Identifies social facts and their merits
Weaknesses of Durkheim
-Does not identify source of sacred
-Does not account for power, conflict, and social stratification
-Structural (little room for creativity/agency)
Strengths of Marx
-Structure and institutions as basis of social order
-Delves into nature of capitalism
-Power of dialectic thought
-Insights into ideology and false consciousness
-Institutions do not operate independently
Weaknesses of Marx
-Does not account for incentives in the communist epoch
-Would the elimination of class be the elimination of all conflict
-Does not address racism, sexism, and other isms in relation to power
-State did not wither away in the USSR as he said would happen in a communist society
-Not all change is revolutionary
-Religion is not always the "opiate of the masses"
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