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Logic II VPSA Vocabulary A-C
Terms in this set (28)
a fallacy committed when a word or part of quotation
is inappropriately emphasized or quoted out of context
from the Latin meaning "from the stronger," it is an argument from antecedent and consequence. it argues that phenomenon will exist in a more probable situation because it exists in a less probable situation. the opposite may also be argued (e.g. the likelihood of the absence of a phenomenon in the more probable situation because of its absence in the less probable situation)
from the latin phrase meaning "at the man" it is a fallacy committed when someone insults his opponent in an argument rather than disproving the opponent's argument.
affirming the consequence
a fallacy that occurs when a person affirms the consequence of a hypothetical statement without considering or allowing for additional factors such as the following: if it is snowing outside, school is canceled. the first part of the statement is the antecedent. the second part is the consequence. if you affirm the consequence, you reason like this: if it is snowing outside, school is canceled. school is canceled: therefore it must be snowing. this is a fallacy because factors beside snow could lead to school being canceled.
Ambiguity or Ambiguius
A term used to describe a word or phrase that can have two or more meanings
a fallacy of definition that occurs when someone uses a vague, ambiguous phrase in two different ways within the same argument.
an argument technique that draws a conclusion based on relevant similarities between two examples; a subtopic of comparison
counterexamples that are exceptions or odd occurrences that don't fit a normal pattern.
Antecedent and consequence
an argument technique that draws a conclusion based n the natural implications of a situation or example; a subtopic of relationship
a word that has the opposite meaning of another word
appeal to moderation
a fallacy that assumes that the correct answer is always a "middle ground" between two extremes.
appeal to pity
a fallacy committed when the speaker tries to convince an audience his argument is valid by making the audience feel sorry for him or for others.
providing examples or rational reasoning for or against an idea or action with the intent to persuade
a famous Greek philosopher who lived from 384-322 BC and developed the common topics.
a philosopher who lived from 1561 to 1626 and who developed the scientific method and the idea of four idols
a fallacy committed when a speaker argues that because everyone believes something or is doing something, we should believe or do it, too.
a predisposition in favor of or against someone or something
cause and effect
an argument technique that draws a conclusion by demonstrating that one phenomenon caused the other; a subtopic of relationship.
a common topic that develops an argument by examining historical examples or what is likely to occur.
a fallacy that occurs when a speaker attempts to apply a general rule, such as a proverb, as a formula that is applicable to every situation. this often results in ridiculous or trite reasoning.
a system Aristotle invented to help people discover all of the possible arguments for a topic. the five common topics are definition, testimony, comparison, relationship, and circumstance.
a common topic that develops an argument by examining similarities, dissimilarities, ad degree f similarity or dissimilarity.
the part of an argument in which the speaker states what he or she believes.
a statement that uses the word "not" to oppose another statement by denying the other statement altogether.
the opposite of a proposition that uses an antonym to express its opposite position
contraries and contradictories
an argument technique that draws a conclusion from examining the contradictory or the contrary statement of the thesis; a subtopic of relationship.
examples that appear to disprove a thesis.
an argument technique that uses the expertise of someone as evidence for a conclusion. "authority" can also refer to a person who, through study and or experience in a matter, has gained legitimate expertise; a subtopic of testimony
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