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Science unit 2 test
Terms in this set (34)
What word describes the Moon's path around Earth?
How long does the Moon's full cycle take?
about a month
What is the difference between WAXING and WANING?
waxing means the moon's light is increasing waning means the moon's light is decreasing.
What is the difference between CRESCENT and GIBBOUS?
crescent is when less than 50% of the moon is lit gibbous is when more than 50% of the moon is lit
How much of the Moon is always illuminated by/reflecting light from the Sun?
What are the two major effects the moon has on Earth?
light at night and the tides
Revolve is to move around in a circle around a central point.
What is another word for revolve?
Give an example of a space object revolving.
The Earth revolves around the Sun about every 365 days.
The Earth revolves around the Sun about every 365 days.
365 days is the orbital period or one year
Rotate is to spin around an axis.
Give an example of a space object rotating.
The Earth spins on its axis every 24 hours.
What section of time (word) do we call Earth's rotation?
24 hours is one day
Briefly, explain why we see phases of the Moon. Why do they repeat?
As the Moon orbits the Earth, the way we see the reflected light from our perspective on Earth changes. Half of the Moon is always lit, however, as the Moon completes its month-long orbit around Earth, the way we see the lighted half changes depending on the moon's position in its orbit. The pattern repeats every 28.5 days because that is how long it takes the Moon to complete its orbit around Earth.
Why is there not an eclipse twice a month (since eclipses happen during full and new moon)
The Moon's orbit is tilted in its orbit around the Earth, so it is not that often that the Sun, Earth, and Moon line up perfectly
What is the latitude of the Equator? What does the equator divide on Earth?
0°, it divides the Earth into two hemispheres (northern and southern)
When a place on Earth receives more hours of direct sunlight, what will happen to temperatures?
What season will they experience?
More hours of direct sunlight means warmer temperatures. They will experience summer.
When a place on Earth receives less direct (weaker) sunlight, what will happen to temperatures? What season will they experience?
Less direct (weaker) sunlight means lower temperatures. They will experience winter.
When a place is located far from the Equator, what types of daylight and temperature changes do they
experience over the course of the year?
Locations far from the equator experience extreme daylight and temperature changes over the year.
What is the most important thing about Earth's orbit around the Sun that causes us to have seasons?
The Earth is tilted 23.5° as it orbits the Sun
How is the timing of seasons in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres different?
The seasons occur opposite to each other in opposite hemispheres. When the northern hemisphere has
summer, the southern hemisphere has winter and vice versa.
Why do the seasons occur at different times of year in opposite hemispheres?
This happens because the Earth's tilts causes one hemisphere to be tilted toward the Sun while at that same time, the other hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun.
In words or a quick sketch (numbers are unnecessary), describe how far apart the Sun, Earth, and Moon are in
the solar system.
The Moon is far from the Earth. The Earth is extremely far away from the Sun.
Explain the "reason for the seasons." (BIG IDEA and supporting evidence)
The Earth tilts 23.5° on its axis. Due to this, places on Earth experience changing hours of daylight (photoperiod) and changing directness (angle of sunlight). When the hemisphere is tilted toward the sun, the photoperiod is longer. When the photoperiod is longer, temperatures are warmer and places experience summer. In addition, when the angle of sunlight is more direct, temperatures are warmer and places experience summer. (Vice versa for winter.)
What is gravity?
Gravity is an attractive force that pulls objects with mass towards each other.
Which way does gravity act on Earth? Why does it do that?
On Earth, gravity pulls objects toward the center of the Earth. The greatest or center of Earth's mass is in the core
What two variables affect the strength of the force of gravity?
the mass of the objects and the distance apart they are from each other.
Explain how gravity changes your weight on different planets.
weight is a measure of the force of gravity that is pulling on an object's mass so the more the gravity (Jupiter) you weigh more and the less the gravity (Moon) you weigh less
Explain how gravity changes as you are farther from what is pulling on you.
As you get farther away from the object pulling on you, the gravitational force is less.
What is a scale factor?
the number the real life dimensions are MULTIPLIED by to give the dimensions of the
What is the formula used to determine scale?
How do you use scale factor to find the sizes of a model or real thing? Give an example (using your own
numbers) using the scale factor 1:5.
If the real life side of a building is 50 ft., that would be 10 in. in the model (smaller by a factor of 5)
Why is it so tough to build a model of the solar system that uses the same scale factor for SIZES of the planets
in our solar system and the DISTANCES between them?
The distances and sizes are SO different (the distances are so much larger than the diameters/sizes) that it
requires a space of about 7 miles to have them both in the same scale model.
A new child-size play car is being created as a scaled version of the actual car. The actual car window is 16 by 20 and the child-size car window is 4 by 5. What scale factor was used?
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