1,016 terms

SAT

a combination of various LSAT quizzes on Quizlet that I find authoritative
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Terms in this set (...)

indigenous
native, originating in a place
subjective
relating to the mind as the subject of experience
paradox
seeming contradiction or an actual contradiction
anomalous
irregular, unusual
viscous
having a thick consistency, gelatinous
ephemeral
fleeting, or short life or duration
corroborate
to confirm or make certain
implicit
implied, tacitly understood
lucid
clear, understandable
prodigal
foolishly generous, not thrifty
feign
to pretend
specious
having the deceptive look of truth
arbitrary
random, capricious, impartial
intrepid
bold, fearless
antagonism
hostility, enmity
antipathy
strong feeling against, dislike for
dogma
firmly held belief
pertinent
clearly relevant
variance
difference, disagreement
incompatible
not well matched, unsuited
isolate
to separate and make alone or single
sever
to cut off completely
synthesis
the combination of diverse elements into one
engender
to create, foster
discrete
distinct, separate
disperse
to spread out
eccentric
unusual, strange
redundant
repetitive, and thus unnecessary
precursor
a necessary predecessor
defer
to postpone or to submit to another
catalyst
a thing that sets another in motion or causes change
disarm
to deprive of weapons or to win over, ingratiate
prone
inclined, or the position of lying face down
profound
deep, thoughtful
torque
rotational force, twist
digress
to move away from
diverge
to go apart in different directions
tangential
peripheral, no on the subject at hand
porous
having pores, having minute holes
plummet
to fall suddenly
circumlocution
excessive speaking, wordiness
perturb
to disquiet, upset
opaque
not transparent, not letting light through
impenetrable
unable to penetrate, pierced
desiccate
to dry out, dehydrate
phenomenon
an occurrence
tacit
unspoken yet understood
whimsy
caprice, a playful thing
abstract
theoretical or to summarize or a summary
inherent
in the essential nature of a thing
dubious
doubtful, questionable
platitude
a trite saying, bromide
fallacy
a logical flaw, mistake
demur
to hesitate, protest
assert
to state without need of proof
refute
to disprove, to argue against
inquisitive
curious, seeking knowledge
mundane
everything, pedestrain
coherent
intelligible, consistent
equivocal
wavering, vacillating
harangue
long, complaining speech
jargon
specialized vocabulary
succinct
concise, stating in few words
diffuse
to spread thinly, or scattered
articulate
well- spoken, intelligible, speak clearly and distinctly
garrulous
extremely talkative
orate
to make a speech, esp. pompously
laconic
few words, reticent
obscure
to hide or hidden, vague, not easily understood
chicanery
flim-flam, trickery
furtive
secret, sneaky
volatile
unstable, likely to explode or vaporize
extemporize
to speak spontaneously
zealot
one who has great enthusiasm esp for a cause
espouse
to take to oneself, to adopt a belief
provocative
tending to simulate
superfluous
excess, extra
expend
to use up
malevolent
evil, having evil intent
paragon
an ideal, perfect model
nullify
negate, make invalid
consummate
complete, accomplish, perfect, to a high degree
arduous
difficult, strenuous
felicity
happiness, pleasantness
prodigy
very talented child
guile
cunning, trickery
ingenious
extremely clever, original
imperative
necessary, immediately important
constrain
restrict, confine
suppress
keep secret, contain, inhibit
capitulate
give in, surrender
obsequious
sycophantic-flatter, fawning
placate
please, pacify
affluent
wealthy
zeal
fanatical enthusiasm
inhibit
restrain, forbid
plasticity
malleability, stretchiness
cynic
one who has an attitude of contempt, distrust
bolster
support
resolute
determined, faithful
connoisseur
one who appreciates fine things
decorous
in good taste, very proper
euphemism
mild word or phrase substituted for an offensive one
pedantic
overly scholarly
bombast
pompous speech
arrogant
overbearing, proud
misanthrope
one who hates humanity
jeer
taunt, deride
disingenuous
seemingly honest while not being so
propriety
appropriateness, social acceptability
heretic
one who holds unorthodox or unapproved beliefs
authentic
genuine, trustworthy
eradicate
to eliminate completely
gist
general meeting, essence
objective
empirically provable, existing independently
affiliation
connecting, association
apposite
relevant, to the point
antithesis
direct opposite
heterogeneous
mixed, made up of unlike elements
stereotype
generalized judgment of a group
paradigm
model, theoretical framework
precedent
earlier example setting a rule
conform
adapt or compliant with
correspond
to match, to conform, to parallel
dissent
to disagree
nuance
slight distinction
negligible
insignificant, not to be considered
trivial
minor, not important
subordinate
depending on, subservient
depletion
lessening
alloy
mixture esp of metal
eclectic
having varying elements
convoluted
intricate, coiled, twisted
inextricable
not able to be untangled
labyrinth
maze
multifarious
diverse, of great variety
consolidate
to join together, merge
component
essential element
shard
fragment esp glass or pottery
comprehensive
all inclusive
pervasive
throughout, in every part
plethora
multiplicity, excessive amount
fracas
riot, fight
gratuitous
uncalled for, not warranted
pandemonium
noisy chaos, bedlam
sporadic
occasional, infrequent
prologue
introductory passage
incipient
beginning, budding
definitive
authoritative
nexus
connection, center
sequential
in order, arranged serially
conflate
to blend together, esp a text
quorum
number of members of a governing body necessary in order to proceed
troupe
group of performers
intrinsic
essential nature of a thing
orthodox
adhering to a strict set of beliefs
maverick
intrepid person, innovator
aberrant
deviating from the norm
enumerate
to count
fusion
merging of diverse parts into a whole
dichotomy
separation into two parts
anachronism
a thing or person out of place in time
fledging
young, inexperienced
exigent
needing swift action
inopportune
not timely, inappropriate
alacrity
promptness, eagerness
adjourn
to suspend, as a meeting
prevalent
common, frequent
stasis
stagnation, equilibrium
labile
unstable, open to change
equilibrium
state of balance
riveting
commanding full attention, fascinating
cessation
stoppage, ceasing
relinquish
to let go of, give up
renegade
an outlaw, one who is unconventional
supersede
to supplant
reciprocate
to give and take, to return, to pay back
crusade
a zealous campaign for a cause
seminal
original or relating to seed or semen
endow
to grant, as a gift
nugatory
negligible, having no effect
unassailable
not questionable, not doubtable
flaccid
limp, drooping
dynamic
in motion
viable
capable of living, capable of working
proliferate
multiply, procreate
fallow
barren, not cultivated or sown
fabricate
to create
incubation
period of gestation
susceptible
prone to, open to
propensity
inclination
collaborate
to work together, cooperate
connive
to conspire, to be in secret sympathy with
synchronous
at the same time
recalcitrant
stubborn, defiant
bucolic
pastoral, relating to country life
ubiquitous
everywhere, in all places
acculturate
to adapt to a culture
colossus
giant statue, very large thing
dimension
property of space, as in height, width, depth
burgeon
to bloom, flourish
contigeous
adjacent with, borders touching
rift
a gap or fissure
recapitulate
to repeat, sum up
tenuous
not solid, weak
nadir
low point, point opposite the zenith
rudimentary
basic
recumbent
lying down, resting
buttress
supporting piece of a structure, strengthen, support
transpose
change from one place to mode to another
facade
false front
peripheral
outside, surrounding, auxiliary
nucleate
to cluster, to form a nucleus
strata
layer
lateral
sideways, on the side
amorphous
without shape, unclassifiable
ellipse
oval
tortuous
twisting, winding, tricky
obtuse
difficult to understand, unable to understand, stupid
striate
to stripe
constrict
to compress, contract
occlude
to obstruct, block up
dormant
asleep, inactive
halcyon
happy, prosperous, peaceful
placid
quiet, calm
stagnant
stale, foul, motionless
accelerate
speed up
precipitate
sudden or steep, rain, snow, to bring about suddenly
saunter
to walk in an easygoing swagger
amble
walk leisurely
reconnaissance
survey, esp military action
pulverize
smash into dust
avert
turn away, avoid
errant
wandering, traveling
converge
come together, merge
egress
exit
lactate
to produce milk
secrete
give off or to hide
welter
chaotic mess
cyclical
periodic and repeating
tepid
lukewarm, room temperature
pigment
coloring element in paint
spectrum
range of all colors, complete range
florid
flowery or reddish
iridescent
having shiny rainbow colors, shimmery
mosaic
picture made of many small parts such as tiles
pied
multi- colored and blotchy
stipple
speckle or fleck esp with paint, effect of many small dots
transcendental
abstract, supernatural
impalpable
not physical, not able to be touched
monolith
a single, huge structure, or a large organization acting as one force
hydrate
add water
emollient
lotion that moisturizes
ferrous
with iron
turbid
muddy, obscurd
arid
dry
aerate
to supply or combine with oxygen or air
resuscitate
to revive, renew
carrion
animal remains
demise
death, cessation
vapid
uninteresting, without liveliness
cloying
sweet, sentimental
pungent
strong tasting or smelling
redolent
aromatic, having an odor
ostensible
apparent, under pretext
discord
argument, strife
fatuous
foolish, silly
inane
silly, empty-headed
ludicrous
ridiculous, absurd
dilettante
amateur, dabbler
cogitate
to think hard, ponder
forage
look for food
peruse
study thoroughly
perspicacious
keen, mentally sharp
doctrine
creed, belief
naivete
unsophisticatedness, artlessness
belie
contradict, give false cover to
implausible
not believable
pontifical
like a pontiff, pope, extremely authoritative
falter
stumble, hesitate
relic
remnant, souvenir, venerated object
juggernaut
large vehicle that crushes anything in its path
proscribe
condemn, forbid
censure
disapprove, condemn, disapproval, condemnation
impunity
without fear of punishment
indictment
formal charge against a person
gourmand
one who likes to eat alot
ascetic
austere, disciplined
hedonist
one who lives for pleasure
profligate
extravagent, prodigal
obdurate
stubborn, unfeeling
altruism
unselfish behavior
quisling
traitor
veracity
truthfulness
probity
honesty
candor
straightforwardness, sincerity
artlessness
crudeness, naturalness
vituperate
scold with excessively harsh language
tirade
long, harsh, highly critical speech
reprobate
depraved, condemned
culpable
deserving of blame
castigate
scold severely
countenance
face, expression or allow to happen
approbation
praise, approval
adulation
admiration
travesty
mockery, parody
derision
scorning, ridicule
vindictive
vengeful, spiteful
truculent
ferocious, extremely harsh
affable
friendly, pleasant
urbane
sophisticated, wordly
lionize
make much of
aggrandize
praise greatly, make seem greater
effrontery
boldness
grandiloquent
having high sounding speech
spurious
false, fradulent
timorous
timid, fearful
redoubtable
formidable, illustrious
aesthetic
artistic, relating to beauty
unprepossessing
homely, plain
tentative
hesitantm, uncertain
discreet
having good judgment, prudent
daunt
subdue or tame
solicitude
over-attentive care, anxiety
disquiet
disturb or upset
commodious
having ample space
exacerbate
aggravate, make worse
contrite
sorry, repentant
levity
lightness, good humor
querulous
complaining, whining
pique
offense, resentment, provoke or excite
intuitive
known through immediate insight not gained through rational thought
sybil
witch
meticulous
extremely careful, fastidious
prescience
ability to foretell events
intelligible
understandable, comprehensible
limpid
clear, serene, transparent`
inadvertence
oversight, unwillingness
concede
to yield, grant
retract
take back, recant
ideology
set of beliefs
temperament
disposition, sensibility
peer
equal
chauvinist
extreme patriot, one who believes one group is superior to another
contend
fight with, oppose
scruple
have moral qualms about, moral principle
concur
agree
prattle
babble, as a child
oblivious
unknowing, unheeding
arcane
secret, esoteric
conundrum
riddle, puzzle
allusive
referring to or hinting t something esp in literature
elucidate
make clear, explain
flagrant
bold, open, apparent
salient
noticeable, prominent
erudition
knowledge, esp gained from books
proctor
one who supervises students at an exam
charade
pretense
hallmark
distinguishing mark
vestige
remnant, trace
tapestry
decorative wall hanging
vernacular
common speech, ordinary language
concise
exact
terse
short, curt
circuitous
round-about, indirect
superfluity
excess
verbiage
excessive wordiness
gregarious
outgoing, friendly
loquacioius
extremely talkative and articulate
prate
chatter, talk meaninglessly
voluble
fluent, talkative
discourse
conversation, long paper or speech on a subject
runic
like runes, mysterious, secret
reticent
not talkative
cryptic
encoded, secret, indecipherable
esoteric
hidden, available only to the initiate
eclipse
overshadowing, esp sun or moon
latent
potential, hidden quality
apocryphal
spurious, not genuine
dissemble
lie
prevaricate
lie
simulate
imitate, make seem real
hyperbole
excessive exaggeration
tout
solicit or promote
seine
fishnet
amenable
agreeable, obediant
diffident
shy, reserved
adamant
hard, unyielding, very hard stone
implacable
not able to be changed
intransigent
stubborn, uncompromising
obstinate
stubborn, unmoving
ambivalent
uncertain, having conflicting feelings
fluctuate
vary widely
caprice
impulsive action, whim
fickle
changeable, not constant
impromptu
spontaneous, spur of the moment
abscond
run away secretly
elusive
difficult to find or pin down
parry
fend off, dodge
shirk
neglect or ignore
aspiration
hope, ambition, breathing in
avarice
greed
proclivity
tendency
predestine
determined ahead of time
instigate
urge, incite
inveigle
acquire through sneakiness
piquant
spicy, as in hot sauce, stimulating, provocative
tantalize
tease, give taste of
profuse
plentiful
Cannot be false - def
Must be true
Cannot be true - opposite
could be true
Cannot be false - opposite
not necessarily true
Could be false - def
not necessarily true
Could be false - opposite
Must be true
Could be true - opposite
Cannot be true
Must be false - def
cannot be true
Must be false - opposite
could be true
Must be true - opposite
not necessarily true
As indicated by
premise
Because
premise
Due to
premise
For
premise
For example
premise
For the reason that
premise
Given that
premise
In that
premise
Owing to
premise
Since
premise
this can be seen by
premise
All
sufficient
Any
sufficient
Every
sufficient
If in order to
sufficient
People who
sufficient
When
sufficient
Whenever
sufficient
Not necessarily true - opposite
must be true
Not necessarily false - def
could be true
Not necessarily false - opposite
cannot be true
Then
Necessary
Only
Necessary
Only if
Necessary
Must
Necessary
Required
Necessary
Until
Necessary
Except
Necessary
Unless
Necessary
Without
Necessary
inconsistent
2 things that cannot be true
consistent
2 things that CAN be true
If it is snowing, then it must be cold.
If S happens then C happens.
It is snowing only if it is cold.
If S happens then C happens
It cannot snow unless it is cold.
If S happens then C happens
We know it is cold if it is snowing.
If S happens then C happens
Sierra goes for a walk if and only if Columbine goes for a walk.
Both or us go or neither of us go
Sara cannot be second unless Trang is first.
If S is second then T is first. Or if T is not first then S is not second. (Get rid of the cannot - arrow through the unless)
Cannot/Unless
Get rid of the cannot - arrow through the unless
R → B
No person who buys the red shirt does not buy the blue shirt.

If someone buys the red shirt, that person buys the blue shirt. In other words, buying the blue shirt is a necessary condition for buying the red shirt.

Since it is impossible to buy the red shirt without also buying the blue shirt, buying the blue shirt is a necessary condition for buying the red shirt. In other words, one can't buy the red shirt without buying the blue shirt, too.
Jameson does not attend the concert unless Steve does.
J --> S
Most
51% or more
Most + Most
Some
Some
1 to everyone
Some + Some
some or most
On the day after the day
2 days next to each other
impugn
Dispute the truth
inculcate
Instill by persistent instruction
petulance
irritable, peevish, or impatient
preceding
come before
Fewer than three
two or less
efficacy
the capacity to produce an effect
transgression
A violation of a law, command, or duty
A occurred before B, so A must have caused B.
Common Causal Flaw
A and B tend to occur together, so A must cause B.
Common Causal Flaw
A is one possible cause, so A must be the only cause.
Common Causal Flaw
Weaken a causal argument
Provide an alternate cause
Show that cause and effect are reversed
Show there is no causal relationship (merely a coincidence)
Reading comprehension 4 points
Cast of Characters
Author's Opinion
Main Idea
Passage Structure
Reading Comprehension pay attention
What's interesting
What questions would you ask yourself
Any ideas that are compared or contrasted
Predictions
unprecedented
Never done or known before
immediately/far
be on the look out
some/most
be on the look out
~h --> s
not s --> h can have both but must have at least one
h --> ~ s
s --> not h can have none but not both
If wrens are in the forest, then so are grosbeaks.
W--> G or no G --> no W
If harriers are in the forest, then grosbeaks are not.
H --> no G or G --> no H (not both)
If jays, martins, or both are in the forest, then so are harriers.
J or M --> H or no H --> no J and no M
Wendy appears in every photograph that Selma appears in.
S -> W
Raimundo appears in every photograh that Yakira does not appear in
Not Y--> R
because of
causal term
caused by
causal term
determined by
causal term
is an effect of
causal term
induced by
causal term
leads to
causal term
promoted by
causal term
produced by
causal term
played a role in
causal term
product of
causal term
responsible for
causal term
reason for
causal term
was a factor in
causal term
Socrates is a man
All men are mortal
Socrates is mortal
No budget committee member serves on the planning committee.
P -->not B
Neither giraffes nor bears are on display
no giraffes and no bears. Make sure that you are looking at the NOT ~ conditional.
Some professors at the school teach Spanish.
Some Spanish teachers have been to Spain.
This tells you nothing because you don't know that the Spanish teachers are from the school.
Tautology
needless repetition of an idea, statement, or word
Two types of Conclusions
Descriptive or Prescriptive which are either absolute or possible.
Types of Descriptive Conclusion
1. Assertions of Truth
2. Comparisons
3.Predictions
4.Conditionals
Define Assertion of Truth
In an Assertion of Truth, the author states that something is or is not the case.
"So, there are always situations in which it is healthy to try to express one's anger."
"Clearly, then, our patrons prefer not to eat potatoes."
Comparison
In a Comparison, the author makes a claim about one thing in relation to another thing.
"This advantage makes B.t. toxins preferable tochemical insecticides for use as components of insect pest management programs."
"On the basis of these results the official concluded that the new pesticide was more effective thanthe old pesticide, at least in the short term, in limiting the loss of certain fruit to insects."
Prediction
In a Prediction, the author states what will happen or what is likely to happen in the future.
"So once humans begin to tap into this tremendous source of creativity and innovation, many problems that today seem insurmountable will be within our ability to solve."
Conditional
In a Conditional, the author states the conclusion in terms of, "if...then..."
"Clearly, ifyou buy a Sturdimade, you can rely on being able to drive it for a very long distance."
"So ifthey were not so brittle, one could reliably determine a rattlesnake's age simply from the number of sections in its rattle."
Prescriptive Conclusion
Prescriptive Conclusionsstate what "should" or "ought" to be the case.
Prescriptive Conclusions are always some form of recommendation.
Recommendation Conclusion
In a Recommendation, the author proposes a course of action.
"Additional restrictions should be placed on driver's licenses of teenagers."
"So individuals who want to reduce their risk of cancer should reduce their fat intake."
Absolute Certainty
Absolute

Something definitely is or is not the case.
A course of action should definitely be undertaken.
Possible Certainty
Something is likely or maybe the case.
A course of action should perhaps be undertaken.
Ways that author supports conclusion.
Offer an alternative explanation?
Eliminate possible alternative explanations?
Apply a general principle to a specific case?
Argue by analogy?
Use an example to prove a point?
Cite a relevant authority?
How should you attack a Method of Argument question?
1. Identify what the question is asking you to do.
What is your job?
2. Engage the stimulus as directed by the question.
How do you do your job?
3. Consider the requirements of the correct answer.
What should the correct answer look like?
4. Evaluate the choices looking for the correct answer.
Which answer looks like your prediction?
Eliminate answer choices that do not accurately describe the author's method of reasoning.
What is the evidence and the conclusion?

It is inaccurate to say that a diet high in refined sugar cannot cause adult-onset diabetes, since a diet high in refined sugar can make a person overweight, and being overweight can predispose a person to adult-onset diabetes.
Evidence:
A diet high in refined sugar can make a person overweight.
Being overweight can predispose a person to adult-onset diabetes.

Conclusion: It is inaccurate to say that a diet high in refined sugar cannot cause adult-onset diabetes.

Method of Argument:
It is inaccurate to say that A cannot cause C because A can cause B and B can cause C.
Any language learned by the geologist is learned by the the historian.
g --> h
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true?
Must Be True
Which one of the following can be properly inferred from the passage?
Must Be True
The main point of the argument is that
Main Point
Larew and Mendota disagree about whether
Point at Issue
Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument above?
Assumption
Which one of the following, if assumed, allows the conclusion above to be properly drawn?
Justify
Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
Strengthen
Which one of the following, if true, most strongly supports the statement above
Strengthen
Which one of the following, if true, would most effectively resolve the apparent paradox above?
Resolve
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
Weaken
Which one of the following describes the technique of reasoning used above?
Method
The reasoning in the astronomer's argument is flawed because this argument
Flaw
Which one of the following arguments is most similar in its pattern of reasoning to the argument above?
Parallel
The answer to which one of the following questions would contribute most to an evaluation of the argument?
Evaluate
If the statements above are true, which one of the following CANNOT be true?
Cannot Be True
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain the viewpoint of the historians described above?
Resolve
Which one of the following can be properly inferred from Rosen's statement?
Must Be True
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the reasoning above?
Weaken
Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument above?
Assumption
Which one of the following arguments is most similar in its pattern of reasoning to the argument above?
Parallel
Of the following, which one most accurately expresses the main point of the argument?
Main Point
Which one of the following, if true, would provide the most support for the economists' assertion?
Strengthen
The argument is flawed because it
Flaw
The dialogue most supports the claim that Tony and Raoul disagree about whether
Point at Issue
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must be false?
Cannot Be True
The advertisement proceeds by
Method
Which one of the following, if assumed, would allow the conclusion to be properly drawn?
Justify
The answer to which one of the following questions would most help in evaluating the columnist's argument?
Evaluate
Sue challenges Anne's reasoning by
Method
The statements above, if true, most strongly support which one of the following?
Must Be True
Each of the following, if true, supports the claim above EXCEPT
Strengthen X
Each of the following, if true, weakens the argument EXCEPT
Weaken X
Which one of the following, if all of them are true is LEAST helpful in establishing that the conclusion above is properly drawn?
Strengthen X
Each of the following describes a flaw in the psychologist's reasoning EXCEPT
Flaw X
Which one of the following, if true, does NOT help to resolve the apparent discrepancy between the safety report and the city's public safety record?
Resolve X
If the statements above are true, each of the following could be true EXCEPT
Cannot Be True
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true?
Must Be True
If the information above is correct, which one of the following conclusions can be properly drawn?
Must Be True
Which one of the following can be inferred from the statement above?
Must Be True
Which one of the following can be properly inferred from the passage?
Must Be True
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true?
Must Be True
If the information above is correct, which one of the following conclusions can be properly drawn on the basis of it?
Must Be True
The statements above, if true, most strongly support which one of the following?
Must Be True
Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the information above?
Must Be True
Which one of the following can be properly inferred from the passage?
Must Be True
Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the statements above, if they are true?
Must Be True
Which one of the following inferences is most supported by the information above?
Must Be True
If all of the statements above are true, which one of the following must be true?
Must Be True
Which one of the following can be logically inferred from the passage?
Must Be True
The statements above, if true, most strongly support which of the following?
Must Be True
Which one of the following logically follows from the statements above?
Must Be True
Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the information above?
Must Be True
Which one of the following conclusions is most strongly supported by the information above?
Must Be True
Which one of the following inferences is most strongly supported by the information above?
Must Be True
Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main conclusion of the argument?
Main Point
Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main conclusion of the argument?
Main Point
Which one of the following most accurately restates the main point of the passage?
Main Point
The main point of the argument is that
Main Point
Which one of the following most accurately expresses the conclusion of the journalist's argument?
Main Point
Which one of the following most accurately expresses the conclusion of the argument?
Main Point
Which one of the following most logically completes the passage
Main Point (fill in the blank)
The information above provides the LEAST support for which one of the following?
Must Be True X
Which one of the following most logically completes the argument?
Main Point
The educators' reasoning provides grounds for accepting which of the following statements?
Must Be True
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
Weaken
Which one of the following, if true, most undermines the researcher's argument?
Weaken
Which one of the following, if shown to be a realistic possibility, would undermine the argument?
Weaken
Which one of the following, if true, would most call into question the analysts' explanation of the price increase?
Weaken
Which one of the following, if true, could be used by Cora to counter Bernard's rejection of her explanation?
Weaken
Which one of the following, if true, is the strongest logical counter parent P can make to parent Q's objection?
Weaken
Which one of the following, if true, most calls into question the claim above?
Weaken
Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the conclusion above?
Weaken
Which one of the following statements, if true, most weakens the speaker's argument?
Weaken
All of the following weakens the politician's argument EXCEPT?
Weaken X
The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that the argument
Flaw
Which one of the following, if true, most strongly strengthens the argument?
Strengthen
Which one of the following, if true, most strongly supports the statement above?
Strengthen
Which one of the following, if true, most strongly supports the statement above?
Strengthen
Which one of the following, if true, does most to justify the conclusion above?
Strengthen
Each of the following, if true, supports the claim above EXCEPT:
Strengthen X
Which one of the following, if true, LEAST strengthens the argument above?
Strengthen X
Each of the following, if true, would strengthen the argument EXCEPT
Strengthen X
Which one of the following discoveries, if it were made, would most support the above hypothesis about South America and Africa?
Strengthen
Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the medical doctor's argument?
Strengthen
Each of the following, if true, strengthens the toxicologist's argument EXCEPT
Strengthen X
Which one of the following, if true, most supports the argument
Strengthen
The conclusion above follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?
Justify
Which one of the following, if assumed, would allow the conclusion to be properly drawn?
Justify
Which one of the following, if true, enables the conclusion to be properly drawn?
Justify
Which one of the following, if assumed, enables the argument's conclusion to be properly inferred?
Justify
Which one of the following is an assumption that would serve to justify the conclusion above?
Justify
The environmentalist's conclusion would be properly drawn if it were true that the
Justify
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which one of the following is assumed?
Justify
Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument above?
Assumption
Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument depends?
Assumption
The argument assumes which one of the following?
Assumption
The conclusion in the passage above relies on which of the following assumptions?
Assumption
The argument assumes which one of the following?
Assumption
The conclusion in the passage above relies on which one of the following assumptions?
Assumption
The position taken above presupposes which one of the following?
Assumption
The conclusion cited does not follow unless
Assumption
Which one of the following is an assumption that the art historian's argument requires in order for its conclusion to be properly drawn?
Assumption
On which one of the following assumptions does the argument rely?
Assumption
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the columnist's argument depends?
Assumption
Which one of the following is an assumption on which Barnes's argument depends?
Assumption
Which one of the following, if true, would most effectively resolve the apparent paradox above?
Resolve
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to resolve the apparent discrepancy in the passage above?
Resolve
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain the puzzling fact cited above?
Resolve
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to reconcile the discrepancy indicated above?
Resolve
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to resolve the apparent conflict described above?
Resolve
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to reconcile the safety experts' belief with the apparently contrary evidence described above?
Resolve
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain the finding of the nicotine study?
Resolve
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain why raisins contain more iron per calorie than do grapes?
Resolve
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain the behavior of the vervet monkeys described above?
Resolve
The method of the argument is to
Method
The argument proceeds by
Method
The argument derives its conclusion by
Method
Which one of the following describes the technique of reasoning used above?
Method
Which one of the following is an argumentative strategy employed in the argument?
Method
Which one of the following is an argumentative strategy employed in the argument?
Method
The argument employs which one of the following reasoning techniques?
Method
Aiesha responds to Adam's argument by
Method
Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between Jane's argument and Mark's argument?
Method
The claim that people have positive or negative responses to many nonsense words plays which one of the following roles in the argument?
Method
Which one of the following most accurately describes the role played in the psychologist's argument by the claim that the obligation to express gratitude cannot be fulfilled anonymously?
Method
Ruth responds to Jorge's criticism by
Method
Sue challenges Anne's reasoning by
Method
Which one of the following most accurately describes the role played in the argument by the statement that zooplankton feed upon phytoplankton?
Method
The claim that humans are still biologically adapted to a diet of wild foods plays which one of the following roles in the nutritionist's argument?
Method
The phrase, "certain traits like herding ability risk being lost among pedigreed dogs" serves which one of the following functions in the argument?
Method
Which one of the following most accurately describes a flaw in the argument's reasoning?
Flaw
The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the ground that the argument
Flaw
The reasoning above is flawed because it fails to recognize that
Flaw
A questionable aspect of the reasoning above is that it
Flaw
The reasoning in the argument is fallacious because the argument
Flaw
Which one of the following is most closely parallel in its reasoning to the reasoning in the argument above?
Parallel
Which one of the following exhibits a pattern of reasoning most similar to that exhibited by the argument above?
Parallel
Which one of the following arguments is most similar in its logical features to the argument above?
Parallel
Which one of the following arguments is most similar in its pattern of reasoning to the argument above?
Parallel
The structure of the reasoning in the argument above is most parallel to that in which one of the following?
Parallel
Which one of the following exhibits a flawed pattern of reasoning most similar to that in the argument above?
Parallel Flaw
The flawed pattern of reasoning in the argument above is most similar to that in which one of the following?
Parallel Flaw
The pattern of reasoning displayed in the argument above is most closely paralleled by that in which one of the following arguments?
Parallel Flaw
The questionable reasoning in the argument above is most closely paralleled by that in which one of the following?
Parallel Flaw
Which one fo the following arguments exhibits flawed reasoning most similar to that exhibited by the argument above?
Parallel Flaw
The flawed reasoning in which one of the following is most similar to that in the commentator's argument?
Parallel Flaw
Which one of the following arguments has a flawed pattern of reasoning most like the flawed reasoning in the argument above?
Parallel Flaw
Which one of the following exhibits both of the logical flaws exhibited by the argument above?
Parallel Flaw
The answer to which one of the following questions would contribute most to an evaluation of the argument?
Evaluate
Clarification of which one of the following issues would be most important to an evaluation of the skeptics' position?
Evaluate
Which one of the following would be most important to know in evaluating the hypothesis in the passage?
Evaluate
Which one of the following would it be most relevant to investigate in evaluating the conclusion of George's argument?
Evaluate
Which one of the following would it be most helpful to know in order to judge whether what the scientist subsequently learned calls into question the hypothesis?
Evaluate
If the statements above are true, which one of the following CANNOT be true?
Cannot Be True
The argument can most reasonably be interpreted as an objection to which one of the following claims?
Cannot Be True
The statements above, if accurate, can best be used as evidence against which one of the following hypotheses?
Cannot Be True
The statements above, if true, most seriously undermine which one of the following assertions?
Cannot Be True
If all of the claims made above are true, then each of the following could be true EXCEPT:
Cannot Be True
If the statements above are true, then which one of the following must be false?
Cannot Be True
Which one of the following most accurately expresses the point at issue between Ted and Mary?
Point at Issue
Which one of the following most accurately represents what is at issue between Jorge and Ruth?
Point at Issue
The dialogue above lends the most support to claim that Sherrie and Fran disagree with each other about which one of the following statements?
Point at Issue
On the basis of their sentiment, Logan and Mendez are committed to disagreeing over whether
Point at Issue
Which one of the following judgments most closely conforms to the principle above?
Must PR
Which one of the following judgments best illustrates the principle illustrated by the argument above?
Must PR
The principle above, if established, would justify which one of the following judgments?
Must PR
The information above most closely conforms to which one of the following principles?
Strengthen PR
Which one of the following most accurately expresses the principle underlying the argumentation above?
Justify PR
Each of the following principles is logically consistent with the columnist's conclusion EXCEPT
Cannot PR
Which one of the following principles most helps to justify the reasoning above?
Strengthen PR
Which one of the following propositions most helps to justify the reasoning above?
Strengthen PR
Each of the following precepts is logically consistent with the columnist's conclusion EXCEPT
Cannot PR
Which one of the following most accurately conforms to the principle above?
Must PR
The principle above conforms most to which of the following?
Strengthen PR
[ A _ B ] ... A in inspected __?__ B
before / ahead of
[ A _ B ] ... B is inspected __?__ A
after / behind
[ A _ _ _ B ] ... There are exactly three spaces __?__ A and B / A and B are __?__ three spaces.
between / separated by
D is inspected exactly two days before E is inspected.
[ D _ E ]
H is inspected exactly two days ahead of when L is inspected.
[ H _ L ]
F marches exactly three groups behind G.
[ G _ _ F ]
K marches exactly three groups after J.
[ J _ _ K ]
R and Q are separated by four spaces, and R is ahead of Q.
[ R _ _ _ _ Q ]
There are four spaces between D and H, and D is behind H.
[ H _ _ _ _ D ]
First part (X --> Y)
If / When
Second part (X --> Y)
Then / Only / Only if / Unless
The "unless" rule
1. Changes the other part into the opposite.
2. The part with the unless goes last.
G does not speak fourth unless Q speaks second.
Unless Q speaks second, G does not speak fourth.
P sings seventh if G sings fourth.
P sings seventh only if G sings fourth.
T dances sixth only if P dances third
B swims immediately after F only if D does not swim immediately ahead of K.
Unless P swims immediately after T, J swims immediately after S.
T dances sixth unless P dances third.
Unless A eats cake, B cannot eat cake.
If A sits next to B, then B does not sit next to C.
Most people diagram this as AB --> -B-C-. This is incorrect!
When F dances third, then G dances 7th
J dances fifth only if M dances second
R jumps into the pool immediately ahead of P unless Q jumps into the pool after H.
S and T are displayed on consecutive days.
There are two days between the day Q is inspected and the day R is inspected.
Q is not inspected the day before R is inspected.
D is not inspected exactly two days before E is inspected.
Q is inspected before R is inspected.
Q > R
Q is inspected before R is inspected but after H is inspected.
H > Q > R
H and Q are both inspected before R is inspected.
A is inspected before B, C, and D are inspected.
F is displayed immediately prior to G, and G is displayed at some point before I.
Either H or J must be inspected on the third day.
H must be inspected on the third day or the fifth day.
A, B, or C must be displayed on the first day.
What is a sufficient condition?
an event or circumstance whose occurrence indicates that a necessary condition must also occur.

If a sufficient occurrence occurs, then you automatically know that the necessary condition also occurs.

If (sufficient), then (necessary)
What is a necessary condition?
an event or circumstance whose occurrence is required in order for a sufficient condition to occur.

If a sufficient occurrence occurs, then you automatically know that the necessary condition also occurs.

If (sufficient), then (necessary)
SUFFICIENT/NECESSARY CONDITIONS
If you get an A+, then you must have studied.
Sufficient: If you get an A +

Necessary: Then you must have studied.

Depicted as: A+ --> Study
If Chris goes fishing with Steve, then Jason will join them as well.
Terms that introduce the sufficient condition
If
When
Terms that introduce the necessary condition
Then
Only
Only if
Unless
SUFFICIENT/NECESSARY CONDITIONS
Unless a person studies, he or she will not receive an A+.
Laron performs second only if Nancy performs sixth.
If V is displayed immediately before W, then S must be displayed third.
If Kahlil performs first, then Martin performs at some time before Paulo.
If R is delivered first, then X is delivered fourth.
If R is inspected on the third day, S is not inspected on the fifth day.
If F's delivery is earlier than M's, then L's delivery is earlier than H's.
G is recorded earlier than H
Z is selected during one of the first two days.
C must sit 4 chairs behind D, and E must sit 3 chairs before C.
Either S or T must speak on the third day.
Tom can sit neither immediately before nor immediately after Pat.
If J is performed fourth, K is performed sixth.
A is not shorter than B.
If A sits next to B, then B does not sit next to C.
Y is inspected before both X and Z are inspected.
M and T must be performed on consecutive days.
R cannot be inspected first.
Three speakers--F, G, and H--give six consecutive one-hour speeches, two speeches per speaker. Exactly one speaker speaks during each hour. The speaker that gives the first speech must also give the second speech.
K must be played before L.
L must be played before M.
If Q is displayed fourth, then R must be displayed first.
R and S are displayed consecutively.
If Q is displayed fourth, then R must be displayed second.
R and S are displayed consecutively.
W and X cannot speak consecutively.
X must speak third of fifth.
Six lawyers--H, J, K, L, M, and O--must speak at a convention. The six speeches are delivered one at a time, consecutively, according to the following restrictions:
K and L must speak consecutively.
O must speak fifth.
A salesman must visit five families--the Browns, the Chans, the Duartes, the Egohs, and the Feinsteins--one after another, not necessarily in that order. The visit must conform to the following restrictions:
The Browns must be visited first or fifth.
The Feinsteins cannot be visited third.
The Chans must be visited fourth.
A child must play five games--P, Q, R, S, and T--one after another, not necessarily in that order. The games must be played according to the following conditions:
The child plays exactly two games between playing S and playing T, whether or not S is played before T.
P is played immediately before Q is played.
A doctor must see six patients--C, D, E, F, G, and H--one after another, not necessarily in that order. The patients must be seen according to the following conditions:
E is seen exactly three patients after C.
D is seen immediately before F is seen.

* If G is seen third, which one of the following must be true?
The CE split-block must be placed into slots 1-4 because if it is placed in slots 2-5 there will be no room for the DF block.
When M is shown first, then O is shown sixth.
M1 --> O6
Each rock classic is immediately preceded on the CD by a new composition.
[NR] is wrong because it doesn't state that each new composition is immediately followed by a rock classic.
B is not inspected the day before C is inspected.

C cannot be inspected second.
A tutor is planning a daily schedule of individual tutoring sessions for each of six students--S, T, W, X, Y, and Z. The tutor will meet with exactly one student at a time, for exactly one hour each session. The tutor will meet students starting at 1 P.M., for six consecutive hours.
This is a 1-1-1-1-1-1 relationship (balanced).
Dr. Saitawa schedules six patients--G, H, L, M, O, and P--for surgery during a single week on Monday through Friday. Dr. Saitawa will operate on exactly one patient each day, except for one of the days when Dr. Saitawa will operate on two patients in separate, non-simultaneous sessions.
This is a 2-1-1-1-1 relationship (overloaded).

One a patient has been assigned a day, it is still possible that another patient could be assigned to that day and thus the day is not "closed off" from further consideration.
Seven passengers--G, H, L, M, O, P, and S are assigned to nine seats.
This is a 1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1 relationship (underfunded).

The deficit of variables can be countered by creating two "E" placeholder variables to represent the two empty seats.
Six swimmers--H, J, K, L, N, and P--are assigned to six swimming lanes numbered 1 through 6. Exactly one swimmer is assigned to each lane. The lane assignments conform to the following conditions:
Swimmer K is assigned a lower-numbered lane than is swimmer J.
Swimmer P is assigned a lower-numbered lane than is swimmer K.
Five dogs--an Akita, a Bulldog, a Cocker Spaniel, a Doberman, and an English Settler--compete in the final round of a dog show. Each dog will be shown alone to the judges exactly once in accordance with the following conditions:
The Doberman can be shown neither immediately before nor immediately after the English Settler.
The Akita must be shown two places before the Doberman.

Which one of the following must be true?
(A) If the Akita is shown third, the English Settler must be shown second.
(B) If the Bulldog is shown fourth, the Akita must be shown third.
(C) If the Cocker Spaniel is shown third, the English Settler must be shown first.
(D) If the Doberman is shown third, the Bulldog must be shown second.
(E) If the English Settler is shown second, the Cocker Spaniel must be shown fourth.
A manager must schedule five meetings--Accounting, Finance, Management, Resources, and Training--during a single workweek, Monday through Friday. Each meeting will be scheduled for exactly one day, and exactly one meeting is held per day. The meeting schedule must observe the following constraints:
The Management meeting is held the day before the Finance meeting.
The Resources meeting is held at some time after the Finance meeting.
The Accounting meeting is held second.
Six students--T, V, W, X, Y, and Z--are scheduled to speak at a debate contest. Each student will speak exactly once, and no two speakers will speak at the same time. The schedule must satisfy the following requirements:
T speaks at some time before W.
X must be the fourth speaker.
V speaks immediately after T.
A jazz band director is selecting the songs for an evening's performance. Seven songs--F, G, H, J, Q, R, and S--will be played one after another, not necessarily in that order. Each song will be played exactly once, according to the following conditions:
F must be played immediately before or immediately after G.
H must be played immediately before or immediately after J.
S must be played fourth.
G must be played after F.
H must be played before J.

Which one of the following cannot be true?
(A) F and R are played consecutively.
(B) G and Q are played consecutively.
(C) H and R are played consecutively.
(D) J and Q are played consecutively.
(E) Q and R are played consecutively.
A college dormitory manager must assign five students--P, Q, R, S, and T--to five different floors of the dormitory--floors 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6. The assignments must comply with the following restrictions:
P must be assigned to the floor directly above Q.
R must be assigned to floor 6.
Seven attorneys--C, D, F, G, H, J, and K--are scheduled to interview for a position with a local law firm. The seven interviews are conducted on six different days, Monday through Saturday. On one of the days two attorneys will be interviewed and on all other days exactly one attorney will be interviewed. The interview schedule must conform to the following conditions:
F and K must be interviewed on the same day.
J must be interviewed on Thursday.
F must be interviewed after C but before G.
D and H cannot be interviewed on consecutive days.
K must be interviewed on either Tuesday or Friday.

Which one of the following could be true?
(A) C is interviewed on Wednesday.
(B) C is interviewed on Friday.
(C) D is interviewed on Tuesday.
(D) G is interviewed on Wednesday.
(E) G is interviewed on Friday.
Each of six patrons--L, M, N, O, P, and Q--will be assigned to exactly one of seven tables. The tables stand consecutively and are numbered 1 through 7, and each table is assigned no more than one patron. Table assignments must meet the following requirements:
N cannot be assigned to table 3, 5, or 7.
P and Q must sit at lower-numbered tables than M.
Tables 5, 6, and 7 must be occupied by a patron.
O sits at a higher-numbered table than M.
There are exactly seven office buildings numbered 1 through 7 on a street. Each building is occupied by exactly one of seven companies: A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. All of the buildings are on the same side of the street, which runs from east to west. Building 1 is the westernmost building. The following restrictions apply:
Company A does not occupy building 1, 3, 5, or 7.
Company C occupies the building immediately to the west of Company D.
Company B occupies one of the three westernmost buildings.
Company F is the third building to the east of Company E.
The easternmost building is not occupied by Company G.
A dance academy instructor must schedule eight dance classes--a charleston class, a foxtrot class, a jitterbug class, a limbo class, a polka class, a rumba class, a tango class, and a waltz class--for a single day. Exactly two classes will be scheduled at a time, and the scheduling must be made according to the following conditions:
The limbo class and the rumba class are not scheduled for the same time.
The charleston class and the polka class must be scheduled for the same time.
The limbo class is scheduled at some time after the polka class.
The rumba class and the waltz class are not scheduled for the same time.

If the tango class is scheduled for the same time as the foxtrot class, which one of the following must be true?
(A) The jitterbug class and the limbo class must be scheduled for the same time.
(B) The jitterbug class and the rumba class must be scheduled for the same time.
(C) The jitterbug class and the waltz class must be scheduled for the same time.
(D) The limbo class and the rumba class must be scheduled for the same time.
(E) The rumba class and the waltz class must be scheduled for the same time.
Answer choice (B) is correct. If F is scheduled with T, then only J remains to be paired with R.
A driver must pick up exactly eight passengers—P, R, S, T, V, X, Y, and Z—one at a time, not necessarily in that order. The pickups must be made in accordance with the following conditions:
Either T or V must be picked up fifth.
Either Y or Z must be picked up third.
The driver picks up exactly one passenger between picking up T and picking up Z.
S is picked up eighth when Y is picked up third.
Z must be picked up ahead of T.

If V is picked up fifth, which one of the following must be true?
(A) P is picked up first.
(B) R is picked up sixth.
(C) S is picked up eighth.
(D) X is picked up seventh.
(E) Z is picked up sixth.
Answer choice (C) is correct. If V is picked up fifth, Y must be picked up third, and when Y is picked up third then S must be picked up eighth.
A doctor must schedule nine patients—L, M, O, P, R, S, T, V, and X—during a given week, Monday through Sunday. At least one patient must be scheduled for each day, and the schedule must observe the following constraints:
M and S must be scheduled for the same day.
On the day P is scheduled, P must be the only patient scheduled to see the doctor.
Exactly one patient is scheduled for Wednesday.
T cannot be scheduled for Thursday.
If P is scheduled for Monday, then V and X must be scheduled for Saturday.
R is not scheduled for Thursday unless L is scheduled for Monday.

If L is scheduled for Monday, which one of the following must be true?
(A) R is scheduled for Thursday.
(B) V is scheduled for Saturday.
(C) S is scheduled for Saturday.
(D) P is not scheduled for Monday.
(E) V is not scheduled for Monday.

Which one of the following statements about the doctor's schedule must be true?
(A) The maximum number of patients scheduled for Monday is one.
(B) The maximum number of patients scheduled for Tuesday is two.
(C) The maximum number of patients scheduled for Friday is three.
(D) The minimum number of patients scheduled for Saturday is two.
(E) The minimum number of patients scheduled for Sunday is two.
Answer choice (D) is the correct answer. If L is scheduled for Monday, then according to the second rule P cannot be scheduled for Monday.

Answer choice (C) is correct since the maximum number of patients that can ever be scheduled for a single day is three (3-1-1-1-1-1-1).
Opposite of "Cannot Be True"
Could Be True
Opposite of "Could Be True"
Cannot Be True
Opposite of "Not Necessarily True"
Must Be True
Opposite of "Must Be True"
Not Necessarily True
[Logical Opposition]
If G is seated second, which one of the following could be true?
1 = Could Be True
4 = Cannot Be True
[Logical Opposition]
Which one of the following cannot be true?
1 = Cannot Be True
4 = Could Be True
[Logical Opposition]
If R is selected fifth, which one of the following must be true?
1 = Must Be True
4 = Not Necessarily True
[Logical Opposition]
Which one of the following must be true?
1 = Must Be True
4 = Not Necessarily True
[Logical Opposition]
Each of the following must be true except:
1 = Not Necessarily True
4 = Must Be True
"Must Be False"
Cannot Be True
"Not Necessarily False"
Could Be True
"Could Be False"
Not Necessarily True
"Cannot Be False"
Must Be True
an argument vs. a set of facts
An argument:

" All professors are ethical (premise). Mason is a professor (premise). So Mason is ethical (conclusion). "

A set of facts:

" The Jacksonville area has just over one million residents. The Cincinnati area has almost two million residents. The New York area has almost twenty million residents. "

(a set of facts does not include a conclusion)
TIP: Always read each of the five answer choices before deciding which answer is correct. ALWAYS choose the BEST answer.
TIP: On average, you have 1 minute and 25 seconds to complete each question.
What is a premise?
A fact, proposition, or statement from which a conclusion is made.

A premise gives a reason why something should be believed.

"What reasons has the author used to persuade me? Why should I believe this argument? What evidence exists?"
What is a conclusion?
A statement or judgement that follows from one or more reasons.

A conclusion is the point the author tries to prove by using another statement.

"What is the author driving at? What does the author want me to believe? What point follows from the others?"
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Humans cannot live on Venus because the surface temperature is too high.
P: because the surface temperature is too high.
C: Humans cannot live on Venus.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
The economy is in tatters. Therefore, we must end this war.
P: The economy is in tatters.
C: Therefore, we must end this war.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
We must reduce our budget due to the significant cost overruns we experienced during production.
P: due to the significant cost overruns we experienced during production.

C: we must reduce our budget.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Fraud has cost the insurance industry
millions of dollars in lost revenue. Thus, congress will pass a stricter fraud control bill since the insurance industry has one of the most powerful lobbies.
P1: fraud has cost the insurance industry millions of dollars in lost revenue.

P2: since the insurance industry has one of the most powerful lobbies.

C: thus, congress will pass a stricter fraud control bill.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
The data show that people who eat chocolate are generally happy people. As a result, more and more people are buying chocolates.
P: people who eat chocolate are generally happy people.

C: more and more people are buying chocolates.
TIP: Always identify the conclusion, if one exists.
TIP:
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Therefore, since higher debt has forced consumers to lower their savings, they now have less money to loan.
P: since higher debt has forced consumers to lower their savings

C: therefore, banks now have less money to loan.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Given that the price of steel is rising, we will no longer be able to offer discounts on our car parts.
P: given that the price of steel is rising

C: we will no longer be able to offer discounts on our car parts
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
The political situation in Somalia is unstable owing to the ability of individual warlords to maintain powerful armed forces.
P: owing to the ability of individual warlords to maintain powerful armed forces.

C: the political situation in Somalia is unstable.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Since we need to have many different interests to sustain us, the scientists' belief must be incorrect.
P: since we need to have many different interests to sustain us.

C: the scientists' belief must be incorrect.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
So, as indicated by the newly released data, we should push forward with our efforts to recolonize the forest with snowy tree crickets.
P: as indicated by the newly released data.

C: so we should push forward with our efforts to recolonize the forest with snowy tree crickets.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Television has a harmful effect on society. This can be seen from the poor school performance of children who watch significant amounts of television and from the fact that children who watch more than six hours of television a day tend to read less than non-television watching children.
P1: This can be seen from the poor school performance of children who watch significant amounts of television

P2: from the fact that children who watch more than six hours of television a day tend to read less than non-television watching children.

C: Television has a harmful effect on society.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
The rapid diminishment of the ecosystem of the Amazon threatens the entire planet. Consequently, we must take immediate steps to convince the Brazilian government that planned development projects need to be curtailed for the simple reason that these development projects will greatly accelerate the loss of currently protected land.
P1: The rapid diminishment of the ecosystem of the Amazon threatens the entire planet.

P2: for the simple reason that these development projects will greatly accelerate the loss of currently protected land.

C: Consequently, we must take immediate steps to convince the Brazilian government that planned development projects need to be curtailed
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Every professor at Fillmore University teaches exactly one class per semester. Fillmore's Professor Jackson, therefore, is teaching exactly one class this semester. Moreover, I heard Professor Jackson say she was teaching only a single class.
P1: Every professor at Fillmore University teaches exactly one class per semester.

P2: Moreover, I heard Professor Jackson say she was teaching only a single class.

C: Fillmore's Professor Jackson, therefore, is teaching exactly one class this semester.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Wine is made by crushing grapes and eventually separating the juice from the grape skins. However, the separated juice contains impurities and many wineries do not filter the juice. These wineries claim the unfiltered juice ultimately produces a more flavorful and intense wine. Since these winemakers are experts, we should trust their judgement and not shy away from unfiltered wine.
P1: Wine is made by crushing grapes and eventually separating the juice from the grape skins.

P2: These wineries claim the unfiltered juice ultimately produces a more flavorful and intense wine.

P3: Since these winemakers are experts

CP: However, the separated juice contains impurities and many wineries do not filter the juice.

C: we should trust their judgement and not shy away from unfiltered wine.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Phenylketonurics are people who cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine. There are dangers associated with phenylketonuria, and products containing phenylalanine must carry a warning label that states, "Phenylketonurics: contains phenylalanine." In addition, all children in developed societies receive a phenylketonuria test at birth. Hence, at the moment, we are doing as much as possible to protect against this condition.
P1: Phenylketonurics are people who cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine.

P2: There are dangers associated with phenylketonuria, and products containing phenylalanine must carry a warning label that states, "Phenylketonurics: contains phenylalanine."

P3: In addition, all children in developed societies receive a phenylketonuria test at birth.

C: Hence, at the moment, we are doing as much as possible to protect against this condition.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
During last nights robbery, the thief was unable to open the safe. Thus, last nights robbery was unsuccessful despite the fact that the thief stole several documents. After all, nothing in those documents was as valuable as the money in the safe.
P1: During last nights robbery, the thief was unable to open the safe.

P2: After all, nothing in those documents was as valuable as the money in the safe.

CP: despite the fact that the thief stole several documents.

C: Thus, last nights robbery was unsuccessful
Conclusion Identification Method
Because...

We can conclude that...
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
The best way of eliminating traffic congestion will not be easily found. There are so many competing possibilities that it will take millions of dollars to study every option, and implementation of most options carries an exorbitant price tag.
P: There are so many competing possibilities that it will take millions of dollars to study every option, and implementation of most options carries an exorbitant price tag.

C: The best way of eliminating traffic congestion will not be easily found.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Because the Vikings have the best quarterback in football, they therefore have the best offense in football. Because they have the best offense in football, they will win the Super Bowl next year.
P: Because the Vikings have the best quarterback in football

Sub-C: they therefore have the best offense in football

C: They will win the Super Bowl next year.
PREMISE/CONCLUSION
Anne: Halley's Comet, now in a part of its orbit relatively far from the Sun, recently flared brightly enough to be seen by telescope. No comet has ever been observed to flare so far from the Sun before, so such a flare must be highly unusual.

Sue: Nonsense. Usually no one bothers to try to observe comets when they are so far from the Sun. This flare was observed only because an observatory was tracking Halley's Comet very carefully.
P1: Halley's Comet, now in a part of its orbit relatively far from the Sun, recently flared brightly enough to be seen by telescope.

P2: No comet has ever been observed to flare so far from the Sun before

C: so such a flare must be highly unusual.

P: Usually no one bothers to try to observe comets when they are so far from the Sun.

C: This flare was observed only because an observatory was tracking Halley's Comet very carefully.
because
Premise Indicator
since
Premise Indicator
for
Premise Indicator
for example
Premise Indicator
for the reason that
Premise Indicator
in that
Premise Indicator
given that
Premise Indicator
as indicated by
Premise Indicator
this can be seen from
Premise Indicator
due to
Premise Indicator
owing to
Premise Indicator
we know this by
Premise Indicator
furthermore
Additional Premise Indicator
moreover
Additional Premise Indicator
besides
Additional Premise Indicator
in addition
Additional Premise Indicator
what's more
Additional Premise Indicator
after all
Additional Premise Indicator
thus
Conclusion Indicator
therefore
Conclusion Indicator
hence
Conclusion Indicator
consequently
Conclusion Indicator
as a result
Conclusion Indicator
so
Conclusion Indicator
accordingly
Conclusion Indicator
clearly
Conclusion Indicator
must be that
Conclusion Indicator
shows that
Conclusion Indicator
conclude that
Conclusion Indicator
follows that
Conclusion Indicator
for this reason
Conclusion Indicator
but
Counter-premise Indicator
yet
Counter-premise Indicator
however
Counter-premise Indicator
on the other hand
Counter-premise Indicator
admittedly
Counter-premise Indicator
in contrast
Counter-premise Indicator
although
Counter-premise Indicator
even though
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still
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whereas
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in spite of
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despite
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What is, "to identify an inference"?
It means, to identify something that must be true.
What is an assumption?
An assumption is an unstated premise. It is what must be true in order for the argument to be true.
What is the difference between an inference and an assumption?
inference (something that must be true) is what follows from an argument (in other words, a conclusion).

P: People who read a lot of books are smart.
P: David reads a lot of books.
C: David is smart <-- This is an inference.

An assumption (unstated premise) is what is taken for granted while making an argument.

P: People who read a lot of books are smart.
P: David goes to the library every day.
C: David is smart.

Assumption: David reads books whenever he goes to the library.
What is, the scope of an argument?
The scope of an argument is the range to which the premises and conclusion encompass certain ideas.

For example, consider an argument discussing a new surgical technique. The ideas of surgery and medicine are within the scope of the argument. The idea of federal monetary policy, on the other hand, would not be within the scope of the argument.
ad hominem
An attack on the person rather than on the opponent's ideas.

"You shouldn't listen to him. He is an uneducated alcoholic."
the fallacy of accident
When a general rule is applied to a situation in which it was not intended to apply.

General rule: Birds normally can fly.
Fact: Penguins are birds.
Therefore, penguins can fly.

General rule: 55 mph speed limit on the road
Fact: It's raining, there's heavy fog, and it's dark out
Should we continue to go 55 mph? NO!
affirming the consequent
x->y to y->x

If it's a fish, then it lives under water.
If it lives under water, then it must be a fish.
denying the antecedent
x->y to (not y)->(not x)

If it's a fish, then it lives under water.
If it's not a fish, then it doesn't live under water.
amphiboly
The fallacy of ambiguous construction. It occurs
whenever the whole meaning of a statement can be taken in more than one way, and is usually the fault of careless grammar.

I met the ambassador riding his horse. He was snorting and steaming, so I gave him a lump of sugar.
tu quoque (too-KWO-kwee)
AKA the appeal to hypocrisy.
The "you too" argument.

"How can you tell me not to join the military? You did when you were young."

"Why should we listen to Brown's support for the new carpark when only last year he opposed the whole idea?"

"Nicole identified that Hannah had committed a logical fallacy, but instead of addressing the substance of her claim, Hannah accused Nicole of committing a fallacy earlier on in the conversation."
red herring
Something that draws attention away from the main issue.

"The police should stop environmental demonstrators from inconveniencing the general public. We pay our taxes. '"

"Surely global meltdown is infinitely worse than a little inconvenience?"
loaded words
Words which are slanted for or against the subject.

Scotland stole a goal in the first half, but England's efforts were well rewarded in the second half when...

Can you guess which side the reporter comes from?
runaway train
When an argument used to support a course of action would also support more of it.

The state should subsidize opera because it would be too expensive to mount productions without the extra support from public funds.

(And as the train heads off into the distance, wait for the stations marked son et lumière concerts, civil war re-enactments, and gladiatorial displays. If opera is different, we need to know why.)
post hoc fallacy
False assumption that because one event occurred before another event, it must have caused that event.

Bill purchases a new PowerMac and it works fine for months. He then buys and installs a new piece of software. The next time he starts up his Mac, it freezes. Bill concludes that the software must be the cause of the freeze.

The Republicans pass a new tax reform law that benefits wealthly Americans. Shortly thereafter the economy takes a nose dive. The Democrats claim that the the tax reform caused the economic woes and they push to get rid of it.
slippery slope fallacy
not all slippery slope arguments are fallacious.
if A happens, and then Z happens later, it doesn't necessarily mean that A caused Z to happen. This is a post hoc fallacy.

You said that if we allow A to happen, then Z will eventually happen too, therefore A should not happen.

The problem with this reasoning is that it avoids engaging with the issue at hand, and instead shifts attention to extreme hypotheticals. Because no proof is presented to show that such extreme hypotheticals will in fact occur, this fallacy has the form of an appeal to emotion fallacy by leveraging fear. In effect the argument at hand is unfairly tainted by unsubstantiated conjecture.

e.g. Colin Closet asserts that if we allow same-sex couples to marry, then the next thing we know we'll be allowing people to marry their parents, their cars and even monkeys.
deductive reasoning
reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect). "Teenagers cause the most car accidents. You're a teenager, you will get in a car accident."
inductive reasoning
reasoning from detailed facts to general principles.

e.g. All of the ice we have examined so far is cold. Therefore, all ice is cold."
strawman
You misrepresented someone's argument to make it easier to attack.

By exaggerating, misrepresenting, or just completely fabricating someone's argument, it's much easier to present your own position as being reasonable, but this kind of dishonesty serves to undermine honest rational debate.

e.g. After Will said that we should put more money into health and education, Warren responded by saying that he was surprised that Will hates our country so much that he wants to leave it defenceless by cutting military spending.
bandwagon
"Everyone is doing it so you should too."

You appealed to popularity or the fact that many people do something as an attempted form of validation.

The flaw in this argument is that the popularity of an idea has absolutely no bearing on its validity.
If it did, then the Earth would have made itself flat for most of history to accommodate this popular belief.

e.g. Shamus pointed a drunken finger at Sean and asked him to explain how so many people could believe in leprechauns if they're only a silly old superstition. Sean, however, had had a few too many Guinness himself and fell off his chair.
appeal to authority
You said that because an authority thinks something, it must therefore be true.

It's important to note that this fallacy should not be used to dismiss the claims of experts, or scientific consensus. Appeals to authority are not valid arguments, but nor is it reasonable to disregard the claims of experts who have a demonstrated depth of knowledge unless one has a similar level of understanding and/or access to empirical evidence. However it is, entirely possible that the opinion of a person or institution of authority is wrong; therefore the authority that such a person or institution holds does not have any intrinsic bearing upon whether their claims are true or not.

e.g. Not able to defend his position that evolution 'isn't true' Bob says that he knows a scientist who also questions evolution (and presumably isn't a primate).
loaded question
You asked a question that had a presumption built into it so that it couldn't be answered without appearing guilty.

Loaded question fallacies are particularly effective at derailing rational debates because of their inflammatory nature - the recipient of the loaded question is compelled to defend themselves and may appear flustered or on the back foot.

e.g. Grace and Helen were both romantically interested in Brad. One day, with Brad sitting within earshot, Grace asked in an inquisitive tone whether Helen was having any problems with a drug habit.
begging the question
You presented a circular argument in which the conclusion was included in the premise.

This logically incoherent argument often arises in situations where people have an assumption that is very ingrained, and therefore taken in their minds as a given. Circular reasoning is bad mostly because it's not very good.

e.g. The word of Zorbo the Great is flawless and perfect. We know this because it says so in The Great and Infallible Book of Zorbo's Best and Most Truest Things that are Definitely True and Should Not Ever Be Questioned.
Since always signals
Evidence
Lower case 'since' means
That the preceding clause is the conclusion
When the conclusion introduces a term NOT mentioned in the evidence, the assumption will provide a..
Logical basis for the term
An Assumption is an..
Unstated gap b/w the evidence and conclusion
To help determine what an author's conclusion is, use the
One Sentence Test
Because is a key word to signal
Evidence
Therefore is a key word to signal
Conclusion
In Formal Logic "The only " identifies
Suffucient Condition
All' Negated is
Not all
When an Assumption stimulus contains formal logicstatements, think about what can be deduced from each statement. In particular, identify the contrapositive because...
it is likely to be the correct answer
TIP- The same type of wrong answer will show up REPEATEDLY throughout the Logical Reasoning section the following are examples
(A) Most art is shocking ( C ) Art used to be more shocking than it currently is ( E ) Anything that shocks is art
In Formal Logic "Requires " identifies
Necessity
None' Negated is
Some
How does the Denial Test work
Deny the answer choice & see if it makes the conclusion fall apart
In Formal Logic "All " identifies
Suffucient Condition
More' Negated is
Less-than or Equal
What key words in a Logical Reasoning QUESTION indicates that you should use the denial test
Necessary, Depends, Required
In Formal Logic "Guarantees " identifies
Necessity
Thus is a key word to signal
conclusion
Fewer' Negated is
More than or Equal
In Formal Logic "Never " identifies
Mutually Exclusive
Common Argument Structure
C: We Should/Should not...
E: One reason "X" is good/bad
A:
S:
W:
A: There are no other considerations to take into account

S: This reason is particularly IMPORTANT/ Eliminating another possible factor

W:There is another factor that is relevant
Studies suggest' signals
Conclusion
Common Argument Structure
C: One caused the other
E: Two things are correlated (Occur Together)
A:
S:
W:
A:Correlation wasn't a coincidence, due to third factor, or due to reversed causation

S:Eliminating the possibility of coincidence, third factor, or reversal; or stregthening the liklihood that the first really causes the 2nd

W: Evidence that the correlation may really be just a coincidence, due to a third factor or reversed
Must be' Negated is
Need not be
Common Argument Structure
C: The First thing did Cause the Second
E: One thing can cause another
A:
S:
W:
A: There is no other possible explanation for the 2nd event to occur

S:Eliminate other possible explanations

W: Suggest an alternative explanation
In Formal Logic " Incapable" identifies
Suffucient Condition
For is a key word to signal
Evidence
Common Argument Structure
C: The event did not occur at all
E: Something did no occur in a particular way
A:
S:
W:
A:The event could not have happened for any other reason

S:Eliminate other possible reasons the event could have occured

W:Give another possible way for the event to have occured
Common Argument Structure
C: The Event WILL occur
E: Reason an event is likely to occur
A:
S:
W:
A:The evidence is relevant to the prediction; there isn't some other factor that's not being taken into account

S: The basis for the prediction is more relevant

W: Some other factor that makes the given basis for the prediction less important/less relevant
Can be' Negated is
Cannot be
This shows' signals
Conclusion
In Formal Logic "Must " identifies
Necessity
All except Z are Y translats to
If ~Y --> Z
It is clear' signals
Conclusion
In Formal Logic "Neither....nor " identifies
Mutually Exclusive
Either Y or Z translats to
If ~Y -->Z
Y needs z translats to
If Y --->Z
Z is needed for Y translats to
If Y ---> Z
In Formal Logic " If " identifies
Suffucient Condition
It follows that' signals
Conclusion
Y depends on Z translats to
If Y -->Z
Without Z, Y translats to
If ~Y --->Z
If ~Z ---> ~Y
From the fact that' signals
Evidence
"After all' Signals
Evidence
X if, but only if Y translats to
X ---> Y
AND
Y---->X
In Formal Logic " Any" identifies
Suffucient Condition
C: X-->Z
E: X--> Y
A: ?
A: Y --> Z
That is why' signals
Conclusion
In Formal Logic "Necessary " identifies
Necessity
C: X-->Z
E: Y--> Z
A: ?
A: A-->Y
C: X-->W
E: X--> Y
E: Z --> W
A: ?
A: Y--> Z
If presented w/ an answer choice that is difficult to comprehend then...?
The more confussing it is , the more likely the answer choice is a distracter
In Formal Logic "None " identifies
Mutually Exclusive
Clearly is a key word that signals
Conclusion
A is a lower numbered position than B....Scribe as...
A...B
So is a key word to signal
Conclusion
In Formal Logic "Bound to lead to " identifies
Necessity
A gets out at some time after B....Scribe as...
B...A
A gets out some time before B....Scribe as...
A...B
In Formal Logic "Every " identifies
Suffucient Condition
A gets out at some time before B but after C....Scribe as...
C...A...B
A gets out immediately before B....Scribe as...
AB
Consequently is a key word to signal
Conclusion
In Formal Logic "Cannot " identifies
Mutually Exclusive
A gets out immediately after B....Scribe as...
BA
In Formal Logic "Are destined to " identifies
Necessity
Exactly one person gets out after A but before B....Scribe as...
A_B
A is exactly two positions before B....Scribe as...
A_B
In Formal Logic "Impossible " identifies
Mutually Exclusive
At least one person gets out after A but before B ....Scribe as...
A_...B
In Formal Logic "Incapable " identifies
Mutually Exclusive
Obviously is a key word to signal
Conclusion
Exactely one person gets out b/w A and B ....Scribe as...
A/B_B/A
It is clear from" signals
Evidence
In Formal Logic "Only (if) " identifies
Necessity
A is imediately next to B....Scribe as...
AB or BA
M got out after either V or G but not both....Scribe as...
V...M...G AND G...M...V
or
V//G...M...G/V
In Formal Logic "No " identifies
Mutually Exclusive
This proves that' signals
Conclusion
A can come neither immediately before nor immediately after B....Scribe as...
AB BA (With line through them)
In Formal Logic "Whenever " identifies
Suffucient Condition
A is forth, B is seventh....Scribe as...
A₄ --> B₇
B ̰₇ --> A ̰₄
In Formal Logic "Results in " identifies
Necessity
If A is not seventh, he is fith
A ̰₇ --> A ₅
A ̰₅ -->A ₇
In Formal Logic "Always " identifies
Necessity
Hence is a key word to signal
Conclusion
In Formal Logic "Unless " identifies
Necessity
A is in a group with exactly two members ....scribe as...
A _ _ (Boxed in)
In Formal Logic "Produces " identifies
Necessity
As a result' signals
Conclusion
A and B are always in the same group....scribe as...
ALWAYS AB
In Formal Logic "Each " identifies
Suffucient Condition
If she selects K, she nust select M ...Scribe as ...
K --> M
~M ---> ~K
A is not selected unless B is selected....scribe as...
A ---> B
~ B ---> ~ A
In Formal Logic "Then " identifies
Necessity
If George buys A, then he does not buy B....Scribe as....
A ---> ~ B
B ---> ~ A
If George does not buy A, then he buys B
~ A --> B
~ B --> A
This rule says we must have A, or B, or both
In Formal Logic "Sure to " identifies
Necessity
If she selects G, she can select neither H nor Y...scribe as...
G---> ~H and ~Y
H or Y --> ~G
Either A or B must be selected, but A and B cannot both be selected....scribe as...
A//B
Abstract Rules & Considerations
J and K have at least one symptom in common...Question you ask yourself?
What symptom could that be?
Abstract Rules & Considerations
L has greater number of symptoms than K... Question you ask yourself?
How many could L have how many could K have?
Abstract Rules & Considerations
Exactly twice as many people are in group 1 as in group 2. ...Question you ask yourself?
How many people can be in group one?
Abstract Rules & Considerations
Exactly one entity is in every group. ...Question you ask yourself?
Which entity could that be? Must it be? Could it be not?
Section Strategy
The most effective and efficient order approach the section:
choose your passage # of questions and degree of difficulty
Read the passage strategically
Identify the Question Type
Research the Relevant Text
Make a Prediction
Evaluate the Answer Choices
Approach
• Identify the topic
• Scope
• Purpose
• Main idea
Question Types
• Global
• Detail
• Inference
• Logic Function
• Logic Reasoning
Global Questions
• Identify the question type: "Main idea", "Purpose", "Organization"
• Task: Think big picture, Review T/S/P/MI, Consult you roadmap
• You should be able to predict an answer to most Global questions
• Do global questions first
• Global questions are usually the first and next to last questions
Detail Questions
• Identify the question type: "According to the author", "The passage states", "the author mentions"
• Task: Research the relevant text
Inference Questions
• Identify the question type: "the author implies", "the passage suggests", "likely to agree"
• Task: Read between the lines, Perhaps combine statements, Identify what must follow from the passage
• Inference means "must be true". It's a statement that must be true if everything in the stimulus is true.
• Inference questions require you to paraphrase the relevant text or make a deduction
• Common wrong answer choices; 180, faulty use of detail, extreme, out of scope
• Answer inference questions after you've already picked up points with Global and Detail questions
• The correct answer to an inference question doesn't require any information that isn't included in the stimulus
• Valid inferences aren't necessarily mind-blowing
• Beware of extreme wording in inference answer choices
• The correct answer doesn't have to take the entire stimulus into account
Logical Function Questions
• Identify the question type: "the author...primarily in order to", "primary purpose of the first passage", "best describes the function of"
• Task: Looks at the context of the detail or paragraph and ask why the author put it there
• Common wrong answer choices; 180, distortion, faulty use of detail
Logical Reasoning Questions
• Identify the question type: Will mimic LR question types, including
o strengthening / weakening - "supports" / "undermines"
o Principle - "principle"
o Parallel Reasoning - "analogies"
• Task: Use the appropriate LR strategy
Common Logical Reasoning & Reading Comp Wrong Answer Types
• Extreme Language
• Faulty use of detail
• Outside of scope
• 180
• Distortion
• Half Right, Half Wrong
• Irrelevant Comparison
Reading Strategically
Whatever strategy you choose, you should give the passage or pair of passages at least one careful reading before answering the questions. Try to distinguish main ideas from supporting ideas, and opinions or attitudes from factual, objective information. Note transitions from one idea to the next and identify the relationships among the different ideas or parts of a passage, or between the two passages in Comparative Reading sets. Consider how and why an author makes points and draws conclusions. Be sensitive to implications of what the passages say.
Roadmap the Text
You may find it helpful to mark key parts of passages. For example, you might underline main ideas or important arguments, and you might circle transitional words—"although," "nevertheless," "correspondingly," and the like—that will help you map the structure of a passage. Also, you might note descriptive words that will help you identify an author's attitude toward a particular idea or person.
• Always circle colon
• Always circle a question mark
Locate and use keywords
• Logic - Evidence and Conclusion (Therefore..., Since...)
• Contrast (However...)
• Continuation (Moreover...)
• Illustration (Examples of...)
• Emphasis / Opinion (Critics, Voices, Even)
• Sequence / Timing (Frame of reference, Dates, More Recently)
Contrast Keywords
But Despite
Yet Although
However Even So
Nevertheless Whereas
On the other hand Conversely
Instead
Emphasis Keywords
Remarkable (more / most) important
Compelling Substantial
Even more than
Opinion Keywords
Believed by Thought to be
Asserts Some maintain
Argues that According to
As X sees it The astronomers assumed
Contrast Keywords
; In addition
Also As well
Similarly Likewise
Illustration Keywords
: In contrast to
For example
Temporal Keywords
Since Until recently
Recent developments In the past
Historically Traditionally
Numerical Keywords
Three possible explanations There are two reasons for this
Abrams describes a fourfold structure
Evidence Keywords
Because Since
This is clear from
Conclusion Keywords
Thus Clearly as a result
And so
Words that reveal the author's viewpoint - Negative
Doubtful Unconvincing
Unlikely Danger
Harmful
Words that reveal the author's viewpoint - Positive
Cogent Completing
Promising
Words that reveal the author's viewpoint - Uncertainty / Qualification
Seems Appears
Mysterious
Use the clues
• Proper Nouns & Names; look for same key word in the text or margin notes
• Line Reference; context is key. Look at the surrounding paragraph (+/- 2 sentences)
• Direct Quotes; context is key. Who is quoted (author, critic) Associated Keywords
• Paragraph References; consider paragraph in totality. Consider paragraph in context of larger argument
• Content Clues; word or phrase of the text. What paragraph. Look for associated key words
Comparative Reading
• Two short passages
• 6-8 questions
Testing Strategy
• Expect questions that reward your ability to identify points of agreement and disagreement between the passages