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Sociology Final

1. Karl Marx and Jean-Jacques Rousseau tend to agree on at least one thing. They both felt that the primary source of social ills in society was due to the emergence of:
Private property.
2. Thomas Malthus had a positive view of inequality. He defended disease, slavery and child murder. Why?
He felt this would allow the population to thin itself out naturally.
3. Each society has a type of social stratification. How does the United States justify its type of stratification system?
Equality of opportunity
4. A category of people who have comparable levels of income and education and who work at jobs that are roughly comparable in prestige constitutes a ________.
Social Class
5. Sometimes individuals seek to assert or increase their status, not just through occupation, but also through:
Education and adaptation of characteristics
6. Let's say you are best at building with your hands and you become a carpenter working for a local building contractor. A friend of yours is very good at programming computers, so he/she works at IBM. Yet another friend excels at science so he/she goes to medical school and becomes a physician. Each of you is paid the exact same salary and each of you lives in the same neighborhood and drives the same type of car. What standard of equality would this be an example of?
Equality of outcome
7. C. Wright Mills argues that there are three major institutions in the United States today that have the power to make decisions for the masses. Which one of the following is NOT one of these?
8. Pareto believed in a society in which status and mobility are based on individual attributes and ability, called:
9. Sociologists often describe an individual's position in a stratified social order that attempts to classify groups, individuals, families, or households in terms of indicators such as occupation, income, wealth, and education. Sociologists call this:
Socioeconomic status
10. An example of horizontal social mobility is:
-A Secretary changing firms but retaining her occupational status.
-Methodist who converts to Lutheranism.
-A family that migrates from to one city from another.
11. John Gray, author of Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus (1993), takes the position that the different temperaments, emotions, and languages of males and females are rooted in:
Biological difference
12. The study of gender is basically the study of how two spheres shape each other. What are the two spheres?
Sex and sexuality
13. What you do in the social world should be a direct result of who you are in the natural
world. This statement refers to:
Logical determinism
14. An essentialist would argue all of following for why women outnumber men in occupations that involve caring EXCEPT:
Women instinctively know how to care for others better than men.
15. Feminist philosopher Elizabeth Grosz proposed that we view the relationship between sex (the natural) and gender (the social) as existing on a Möbius strip because:
Sex and gender are two side of the same coin, and thus inseparable.
16. All of the following are reasons why sociologists view gender as a social construction rather than a biological given EXCEPT:
17. Bob and Sue paint their baby's room pink as soon as they find out that they are having a girl. They are beginning to provide the baby with what?
Her gendered identity
18. Sociologist Cynthia Fuchs Epstein argues that deceptive distinctions are those sex differences that arise out of the roles individuals occupy, rather than some innate force. Which of the following is NOT an example of deceptive distinctions?
A girl who is a cheerleader and acts unanimated and unenthusiastic.
19. Cynthia Fuchs Epstein argues that the types of work performed by men and women in each society are determined by _________.
Socialization and social control
20. Under the sex/gender system, men universally perform the kinds of tasks:
That are accorded higher value than those done by women.
21. According to Talcott Parsons, the nuclear family is the ideal arrangement in modern society because it fulfills the function of reproducing workers and the division of labor ensures a stable society. What did Parsons call this theory?
Sex role theory
22. Carol Gilligan found boys and girls played differently on the playground. In comparison to boys, girls tended to:
Play less complex games, play shorter games, and were likely to bend the rules
23. Which theoretical perspective argues that gender is a product of social interactions, and that
by "doing gender" men and women create and contribute to the gendered patterns we see?
"Doing gender" perspective by West and Zimmerman
24. Which of the following statements best describes how most sociologists believe that gender differences in behavior between men and women develop?
Gender differences are based on social factors.
25. It is argued in your text that gender structures social relationships by giving men the advantage in society. Which of the following is least likely to happen?
26. The basic idea behind feminism is that women and men should be:
Accorded equal opportunities and respect
27. Patricia Hill Collins claims that gender intersects with race, class, nationality, and religion. Which group has made the case that early liberal feminism was largely by, about, and for white middle-class women?
Black feminists
28. Black feminists essentially argue all of the following EXCEPT:
Black Feminism argues that sexism, class oppression, and racism are inextricably bound together.
In his book The History of Sexuality (1978), Michel Foucault contends that the change in the view of homosexuality to one of deviance was a result of all of the following EXCEPT:
The modern state, the industrial revolution, and capitalism
30. Alfred Kinsey's 1948 study, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, is important because:
It viewed sexuality as falling on a continuum, thus challenging the psychiatric claim of homosexuality as "abnormal."
. In the classroom, compared to girls, boys are:
Are more likely to be victimized by violent crime, succeed in killing themselves more often.
The unequal access to power, prestige and property based on a person's sex defines
Gender stratification.
Social Darwinism was the evolutionary notion of:
"Survival of the fittest"
34. During the 1950s the United States began to focus more on cultural theories of race and ethnicity, thus rejecting:
Scientific racial thought
35. The genetic variation that corresponds with geographic origins is _______than people commonly believe.
much less
While race might reflect our biological heritage, ______ reflects our cultural heritage.
37. Which statement is most accurate regarding the meaning of race?
Race varies, depending upon the society in which its meaning is constructed.
38. In American history who were the "white ethnics"?
Immigrants from Europe whose language and other customs differed from the original White Anglo-Saxon Protestants.
39. What allows one to identify with a nationality without the rights and duties of a citizen?
40. Tony Puscalucci often wears a shirt that says, "Kiss me, I'm Italian." He flies the American flag at home, greets people by saying, "bonjourno," and is known for making the best lasagna in the valley. In view of this, which phrase best describes Tony's behavior?
Symbolic ethnicity
41. The differences between race and ethnicity underscore the privileged positions of ____________ in America, who have the freedom to pick and choose their identities and freely show their ethnic backgrounds.
42. During the mid-twentieth century in the United States, many blacks moved north to escape Jim Crow laws in the rural south. This resulted in:
The integration of larger cities, rural farmers to urban industrial workers.
43. Pedro, a legal immigrant from Mexico, and George, a white male whose family has been in America for several generations, have each applied for a car loan at the local bank. Pedro's loan was turned down while George's loan was given to him. In comparing their credit history, both men had good credit, and their debts and income were comparable. This is an example of _________ against Pedro.
44. Sam, a bartender who saw duty in Vietnam, refuses to serve Asians in his bar because he believes that Asians have no business living in the U.S.A. Sam's actions describe
45. The General Social Survey asked respondents why, on average, African Americans have worse jobs, income, and housing than white people. Nearly half of the respondents believed that blacks:
Don't have the motivation to pull them out of poverty
46. What is the largest minority group in the United States today?
47. The black ghetto was manufactured by whites through a set of deliberate, conscious practices. Which of the following is NOT one of the practices mentioned in your book?
Boundaries, separating black neighborhoods, whites adopted policy of "flight", specific government policies.
48. What are TWO (2) myths of race?
49. In one study of television portrayals of Arabs, researchers found basic myths that continue to surround this group. Which of the following is NOT one of these myths?
surround this group. Which of the following is NOT one of these myths?
Fabulously wealthy, uncivilized and barbaric, sex crazed, rebel in acts of terrorism
50. How does the U.S. Census instruct Americans to classify themselves as it relates to race?
Allowed people to check off more then one box for racial identity