Internal forces that affect a person's voluntary choice of behavior: direction, intensity, persistence
Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task
personal characteristics that lead to superior performance
Beliefs about what behavior is required to achieve the desired results: understanding what tasks to perform, understanding relative importance of tasks, understanding preferred, behaviors to accomplish tasks
Environmental conditions beyond the individual's short-term control that constrain or facilitate behavior: time, people, budget, work facilities
thoughts, values, etc inferred from behaviors
Influenced by Nature
Heredity explains about 50 percent of behavioral tendencies and 30 percent of temperament
twins had similar personalities when growing up seperately due to influence by nature
Influenced by Nurture
Socialization, life experiences, learning. Personality stabilizes throughout adolescence.
Five-Factor Personality Model
Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, Extraversion
Motivational components of personality. Strongest personality predictors of performance
Effective in jobs requiring cooperation and helpfulness.
Anxious, hostile. Jobs such as law enforcement are not suitable.
Openness to Experience
Linked to higher creativity and adaptability to change.
Linked to sales and mgt performance. Related to social interaction and persuasion
The degree to which people value personal freedom, self-sufficiency, control over themselves, being appreciated for unique qualities.
The degree to which people value their group membership and harmonious relationships within the group.
High power distance
Value obedience to authority. Comfortable receiving commands from superiors.Prefer formal rules and authority to resolve conflicts.
Low power distance
Expect relatively equal power sharing. View relationship with boss as interdependence, not dependence.
High uncertainty avoidance
Feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty. Value structured situations and direct communication.
Low uncertainty avoidance
tolerate ambiguity and uncertainty.
High achievement orientation
Consists of assertiveness, competitiveness, materialism
High nurturing orientation
Consists of relationships and caring for others' well-being
The process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed and/or negatively affected by another party.
serves organizational interests
threatens organizational interests.
Task-related conflict (procedural conflict)
Conflict is aimed at issue, not parties. Helps recognize problems, identify solutions, and understand the issues better. Potentially healthy and valuable.
Socio-emotional conflict (personal conflict)
Conflict viewed as a personal attack. Introduces perceptual biases. Distorts information processing.
conflict among groups/teams/departments in organizations.
Causes of Intergroup conflict
High levels of cohesiveness within groups Belief members of other groups are "all alike" Overly positive views of in-group members View outside members as threats
disagreements over issues that are relevant to a group's real goals and outcomes
disagreements over the methods the group should use to accomplish its basic tasks.
Sources of Conflict
Incompatible Goals; Differentiation - different values, beliefs; Task Interdependence; Scarce Resources; Ambiguous Rules; Communication Problems; Perceived Personality Incompatibility
a form of escalation in which the parties expend more of their resources in the conflict than is appropriate or justifiable by external standards.
Remove sources of different values/beliefs. Rotate people to different jobs, departments, regions. Reduce differentiation via common dress code/status, common work experiences, etc. Reduce goal incompatibility.
Third-Party Conflict Resolution
any attempt by a relatively neutral person to help the parties resolve their differences
A hired person from outside the company (usually retired judge) listen to the arguments by both parties and, using previously agreed upon rules, make a binding (final) decision both parties are obliged to follow
A hired person outside the company helps structure the discussion between two parties in conflict; goal is to manage the process and context of interaction; the parties involved make the final decision
"fixed pie negotiations" (the negotiators are haggling over how large their "slice of the pie" will be)
expanding the pie negotiations; multiple issues at stake; the negotiated result could meet the needs of both parties
the key to understanding, predicting, and influencing employee behavior in organizations
explain work motivation in terms of the extent to which employees satisfy important needs in the workplace (e.g., Maslow's hierarchy, McClelland's theory)
place importance of motivation primarily in the content of the jobs that employees perform (e.g., motivator-hygiene, Job Characteristics theory)
Cognitive process theories
emphasize decisions made by employees regarding how/why they allocate effort (e.g., equity theory, expectancy theory, justice theory, goal-setting theory)
emphasize principles of learning (e.g., reinforcement theory)
Maslow's Needs Hierarchy Theory Lower order needs:
Physiological - food, oxygen, water Safety - protection from predators
Maslow's Needs Hierarchy Theory Higher order needs:
Belongingness - meaningful social relationships Esteem - desire to feel competent in others' eyes Self-Actualization - desire to "be all you can be"
suggests that people cannot truly be motivated by rewards and financial incentives; these factors simply keep them from complaining.
Moving to different jobs
Adding more tasks to a job
Giving employees more autonomy (control) over their job
behavior reinforced according to predictable time periods (e.g., monthly pay checks, annual bonuses)
behavior reinforced according to time, but the time period is unpredictable (e.g., periodic complements by supervisor)
behavior reinforced after behavior is exhibited a certain predictable # of times (e.g., faculty course release after chairing a certain number of doctoral dissertations)
behavior reinforced after an unpredictable # of times the behavior was exhibited (e.g., gambling)
Merit pay systems
often fail because they are poorly implemented, designed or administered.
McClelland's Theory of Needs
Need for achievement (nAch) Need for affiliation (nAff) Need for power (nPow)
A state of anxiety that occurs when an individual's beliefs, feelings and behaviors are inconsistent with one another
Effort, planning and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.
Ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and others
A person's evaluation of his or her job and work context A collection of attitudes about specific facets of the job
Emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in an organization
Calculative attachment - stay because too costly to quit
Adaptive response to situations perceived as challenging or threatening to well-being. Prepares us to adapt to hostile or noxious environmental conditions.
low levels of stress necessary for healthy life activates and motivates people to achieve goals
the degree of physiological, psychological, and behavioral deviation from healthy functioning
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Principles of Management and Organization Midterm (Wareham)