84 terms

community chapter 9 noncommunicable disease

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noncommunicable disease
is a disease that is not passed from one person to the next to direct or indirect means and is not associated with an infectious agent broader term chronic disease
chronic disease
refers to either communicable diseases such as AIDS or noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes and have them on duration and usually slow progression, required medical attention overtime, and or limit the ability to perform activities of daily living
the majority of noncommunicable chronic diseases cannot be prevented or cured to vaccination or medication
rather they require long-term and achievement globally there is an increase in noncommunicable diseases with cardiovascular disease diabetes cancers and chronic respiratory diseases the chief causes of death globally
healthcare providers including nurses typically care for those with noncommunicable diseases on an individual basis
often during the acute phase of the disease or at the end stages of the disease
the chronic care model
requires healthcare providers to retain the care provided from the treatment of acute phase of the noncommunicable disease within the acute care setting to long-term management in the community
care of an existing noncommunicable disease should be provided with any secondary and tertiary prevention framework that focuses on early detection and treatment and a long-term plan of care and reducing morbidity and mortality
true
noncommunicable diseases at significantly to the overall burden of disease for a population
true
burden of disease
is defined by the WHO as the overall impact of diseases and injuries at the individual level, at the societal level, or at the economic cost of the disease
why is it important to know about the burden of disease associated with the specific disease
it takes into account what impact the disease has on the population are community as a whole estimating the burden of a particular diseasecan help a community to prioritize health promotion and prevention efforts by targeting those diseases that account for the greatest burden in the community
determining the burden of disease takes into account
not only the cost of treatment but also the social and economic impacts analysis of the burden of a particular disease allows for the assessment of the comparative importance of the disease injury or risk factor
life expectancy
is defined as the number of years a person could be expected to live based on the current mortality rates in a specific setting usually a country
true or false there is great variability across countries and life expectancy
true especially tween developed and developing countries the estimated life expectancy in the US for 2014 was 79.6 years
life expectancy is a valuable tool but it fails to capture the burden of ill health caused by noncommunicable diseases true or false
true
health adjusted life expectancy HALE
reflects the average number of years that a person can expect to live in good health by adjusting for disease and/or injury
the World Health Organization uses a four stage strategy to compute HALEdeath registration data
this allows the who to estimate Hale for countries across the globe epidemiologists compute the hill for a chronic disease using data related to age the number of survivors and a number of years left
premature death noncommunicable diseases often lead to premature death
true
premature death
a death that occurs earlier than the standard life except for those who die prior to reaching the age they would be expected to live there death is defined as premature
years of potential life lost YPLL
is calculated by subtracting the age at which a person dies from the life expectancy from a population perspective premature death is calculated based on the number of potential life-years lost prior to the life expectancy of the population per 100,000 persons
YPLL does not adequately capture the full burden of disease Y
in addition to premature death most noncommunicable diseases lead to disability that can affect an individual's quality of life in productivity a method for quantifying the burden of disease that takes into account both premature death and disability is called disability adjusted life year
disability adjusted life year DALY
is defined as a measurement of the gap that exists between the ideal health status of the disease and the disability free population that lives to an advanced age is calculated by using the population level data
DALY
years of life lost + years of life disabled
formula for years of life lost YLL
YLL= number of deaths x standard life expectancy at age of death in years
formula for years of life disabled YLD
YLD = number of incident cases x disability weight x average duration of the case until remission or death in years
disability weight
to account for the variability of the severity of the disease, anyway factor is included that reflects the severity of the disease on a scale from zero perfect health to one dead
the four common risk factors that account for much of the noncommunicable disease in our country are the same as the risk at the global level and are modifiable and include
nutrition, physical activity, tobacco use, and alcohol use
true or false one fourth of all persons living in the US with noncommunicable disease have one or more limitations in their daily activities
true the overarching goal of healthy people 2020 is to attain high quality longer lives free of preventable disease disability injury and premature death
healthy people 2020 goal diabetes
reduce the disease and economic burden of diabetes mellitus and improve the quality of life for all persons who have or risk for diabetes mellitus
heart disease and stroke goal
improve cardiovascular health and quality of life through prevention detection and treatment of risk factors for heart attack and stroke early identification and treatment of heart attacks and strokes and prevention of repeat cardiovascular events
leading modifiable risk factors for heart disease and stroke are
high blood pressure, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking, diabetes, poor diet and physical inactivity, and overweight and obesity
leading cause of death and disability
according to the CDC noncommunicable chronic conditions are not only costly but are common and preventable cause of death and disability
seven of the top 10 noncommunicable diseases
heart disease, cancer, chronic lower respiratory disease, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and the nest nephrosis
heart disease and stroke
first and fourth leading cause of death in the US account for close to one third of all deaths in the United States risk factors include high blood pressure obesity and current smoking
cancer
second-leading cause of death in the US projected to be the leading cause worldwide public health efforts to increase screening of breast and colorectal cancer
areas to increase the risk for cancer
indoor tanning, secondary smoke odor, and unexplained cancer related health disparities among subpopulations is as African-Americans and those with low socioeconomic status
what type of cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in both men and women with 80% resulted from smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke
one cancer
risk for cancer is combination of behavioral genetic and environmental factors
example diet exercise and alcohol use of been associated with increased risk for breast cancer genetic example BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumor suppressor genes there is no evidence that chemicals cause an increase risk
most common cancers
prostate phenol breast lung and colorectalbut continue to decline
some cancers on the rise
melanoma non-Hodgkin's lymphoma childhood cancer cancers of renal pelvis leukemia thyroid pancreas liver intrahepatic bile duct testes and esophagus
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD
includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis persons with COPD experience airflow limitation that is not fully reversible major risk factor for COPD is smoking in the causative link between the two is abnormal inflammatory response of the longest and noxious particles are gases present in tobacco smoke
diabetes
one in three Americans will develop diabetes by 2050 the trend is occurring across the globe the majority of this increase in type II diabetes is linked to changes in lifestyle especially exercise and diet
risk factors
it is clear that noncommunicable disease is a complex and related numerous factors individual behaviors to nice environmental exposure as well as larger socioeconomic context in which people live to prevent noncommunicable disease epidemiologist explores factors increase the risk of disease occurring
the two major categories of risk that have received a great deal of attention include
lifestyle or behavioral risk factors and socioeconomic risk factors
standardized incidence rates
reflects the observed number of cases in the study population divided by the expected number of cases expected number of cases is based on the incidence rate of a large population that is designed is normal or average
pollutants in the environment
increase risk for asthma cardiovascular health problems and cancer these pollutants include those found in error home and water supply and on the ground
behavioral risk factor current focus is on
healthy nutrition and exercise and avoidance of substance misuse initially tobacco number of
most of the studies that have demonstrated a link between risk factor in disease are based on
control and cohort studies
nutrition exercise and obesity
in 2009 2010 more than a third of US adults will be obesity and overweight increase the risk of noncommunicable diseases Ashley heart disease type II diabetes certain cancers and stroke
the main risk factors associated with obesity are
for nutrition and lack of exercise
a good place to start when faced with a growing health problems such as obesity is to do a population level focus assessment that allows versus of both macro and micro level
prospectivethis assessment can help identify who is at greatest risk for obesity as well as the population level factors that contribute to obesity
healthy 2020 nutrition and weight status call
reduce the proportion of children and adolescents were considered obese
in addition to nutrition and exercise tobacco use is a major behavioral perspective chronic disease
use of tobacco is strongly associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes including cancer pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease
the single most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the US tobacco
an estimated 443,000 people die each year prematurely of diseases related to smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke and another 8.6 million experience serious illness caused by smoking
healthy people 2010 objective on tobacco goals
reducing tobacco use to 12% of adults age 18 or older the school was my only into states the percentage of current smokers in a season 2011 by C range from 9.3 in Utah to more than 26.5 West Virginia
there's strong evidence to support the benefit of smoking cessation and that people who quit smoking have a lower risk of lung cancer than have a continued to smoke
the challenges that tobacco is more than individual issue and requires interventions at population and community level
alcohol use comes for 4% of the global burden of disease in the United States and the third leading cause of preventable death
alcohol consumption beginning with risky uses a major avoidable risk factor for the season injury and in high-volume countries cost city with alcohol accounts more than 1% of the gross national product
alcohols adversely affect health across the lifespan
injuries breast cancer hypertension stroke liver disease and brain damage alcohol use is associated with over 200 diseases and injuries
human genomics
is the study of genetic structure or genome of a living human through genomics evidence clearly demonstrates that there is a genetic role in major noncommunicable diseases including cancer diabetes heart disease and asthma genetic risk predisposes a person to disease independent of environmental and behavioral risks
most chronic diseases are not mono genetic
true
monogenetic
disease is linked to a single mutation such as cystic fibrosis
Polygenetic
meaning multiple genes act together to cause the disease many diseases are experienced in later years of life rather than early in life and genetic interventions are more apt to be beneficial slower genetic change fails to compensate for rapid environmental change
human genome epidemiology
provides a scientific basis for the study of the distribution of gene variants gene disease Association and gene environment and gene gene interactions within and across populations" health scientists to estimate the absolute relative and attribute numerous factors disease presenting genomic factors
socioeconomic factors noncommunicable disease
health is remarkably sensitive to social environment and those who are of us will offer greatest risk were experiencing ill health
disparity in noncommunicable disease noncommunicable diseases a major contributor to disparity in life except a
an example age-adjusted stroke and heart disease deaths are higher for African-Americans than for white because they're likely to die of cancer more than any other racial or ethnic group is associated with economic inequality specifically the differences between the very wealthy and the very poor accounting for the higher prevalence of noncommunicable diseases and those below the poverty level
pprimary prevention programs help to
change barriers to healthy lifestyle for example obtaining at the level of exercise and urban setting require safe streets for lucky and access to recreational activity
secondary prevention efforts are also associated with reduced morbidity and mortality related to noncommunicable diseases especially screening
includes mammograms and screening for colorectal cancers
tertiary prevention efforts aimed at reducing the adverse consequences experienced a person who is Artie been diagnosed with disease
the goal is to reduce the morbidity and disability associated with the disease and prevent premature death
health related quality of life essential to the overarching goals of the healthy people 2020
the goal is to attain and promote a high quality of life for all people across all life stages is multidimensional construct related to the desire physical and psychological health outcomes for most interventions that nurses provide individuals and families HR Q OL is to find here as self perceived impact of physical and emotional health and quality of life including the effects on general physical functioning physical health and role bodily pain fatality social functioning emotional health and role in mental health
HR Q OL evidence-based practice measuring health-related quality of life
the use of the screening tool can help healthcare providers identify persons whose health is negatively impacted the quality of life and can provide a means to measure key health indicators for public health assessment target outcome identify those in need of interventions aimed at improving their quality of life and identifying vulnerable populations
HR Q OL
used in community assessments and surveillance for monitoring health of populations and evaluate outcomes and is still recommended by the CDC
chronic disease self-management
iis defined as an ongoing process by which individuals with chronic illness or condition engages in self-management of medication symptoms and promotion of their own health and can be applied to both noncommunicable and communicable chronic disease
CDSM requires implementation of health promotion and healthy protection strategies which are
fundamental concepts for nursing practice extensive research exists related to the efficacy of patient education programs for specific chronic diseases such as asthma and diabetes
evidence is accumulating that heterogeneous CDS programs that include persons with different chronic diseases are
efficacious, reduce emergency department usage and health distress, and transcend ethnic boundaries
culture and noncommunicable disease
culture plays a big part when culture is mentioned in conjunction with prevention of noncommunicable disease the focus is on the role of the culture in relation to the individual risk behavior such as food nutrition and exercise it is also important in the development of educational materials
culture shifts
occur over time because no culture is static in the past 50 years have been cultural shifts in the US relation to risk behaviors sulci with noncommunicable disease
culture shift
is defined as a change in societies dominant use morals and behaviors when applied to health a represents a shift in how cited use that issue and risk factors associated with the development of disease. For example there has been a cultural shift in how society perceives drinking alcohol and driving once was viewed as a normal behavior is now not tolerated resulting criminal consequences
noncommunicable disease contribute significantly to the overall burden of disease
true
the five leading causes of death in the United States are noncommunicable diseases
true
risk for noncommunicable disease is combination of individual behaviors the environment and socioeconomic factors
true
prevention occurs across a continuum starting with primary prevention during the perinatal period through tertiary prevention measures such as chronic disease and self-management programs
true
a client asked the student nurse how he can lower his risk of developing heart disease and strokewhich answer is given by the student would require immediate remediation by the chapter
the higher the cholesterol level the better off you are
the public health nurses participating in a biometric screening for members of the community which of these clients would benefit most from nutritional counseling
a 24-year-old woman with a BMI of 26
the public health nurses volunteering at a women's clinic the public health nurse understands women are more likely to report experiencing or being diagnosed with all of the following diseases and illnesses except
...
according to the CDC which of the following are among the top five leading causes of death in United States select all that apply
COPD, heart disease, accidents
reduce educator as students for examples of secondary interventions which answer is given by the student would indicate the need for further teaching
the shingles vaccine
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