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110 terms

DCUSH Chapter 8-12 Review

STUDY
PLAY
Part of the "democratizing" of politics during the age of Jackson was the elimination of _________________________for voting and holding office
Property qualification
During John Quincy Adams' presidency, the politician who prepared for the next election by relying on his military reputation and portraying himself as losing the presidency in 1824 due to the "corrupt bargain" was ________________
Andrew Jackson
The basic concept underlying the "spoils system" was that party workers must be rewarded with ___________________ after a successful campaign.
political office
One of the "fundamental tenets of Jacksonian Democracy" was that ___________________
ordinary Americans can do anything
Jackson's advisers who did not hold regular cabinet appointments were called the ___________
kitchen cabinet
Jackson's view of the presidency differed from his predecessor's primarily in his belief that the ________________________________
he was the direct representative of all the people
Other than Jackson's personal popularity, the main campaign issue in the presidential election of 1832 was _____________________________
whether or not we should have the national bank
Jackson defended his veto of the charter of the Second National Bank on the grounds that the bank was ___________________, despite the Supreme Court.
unconstitutionaly
Jackson's attitude toward nullification was to _______________ because of his devotion to the Union.
oppose it
Jackson's policy toward the Native Americans was to________________ to lands west of the Mississippi
Move them
The Native American nation forced to move from Georgia as a result of Jackson's policies were the ___________________
cherokee
Jackson opposed John Marshall's rulings about the Cherokee Nation in Georgia because he believed no _______________________ could be allowed to exist within the United States.
independent nation
South Carolina's challenge to the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 is called the _______________
nullification crisis
The Southern political thinker who justified Southern resistance to the Tariff of 1828 was _____________________
Calhoun
The new political coalition which emerged to challenge Democratic control in the 1830s was called the _____________________
Whigs
The unifying principle of the Whig party was opposition to ______________________
Andrew Jackson
The Whig party's strategy in the election of 1836 was to run several candidates in the hope that the __________________________ would decide the election.
House of Representatives
Martin Van Buren's response to the Panic of 1837 was to follow _______________ to economic troubles.
hands off
In the election of 1840 the Whig's presidential nominee, who was a former military hero whose political opinions were largely unknown, was ___________________
William Henry Harrison
During the election of 1840, the Whigs portrayed Harrison as _________________________
someone from humble beginnings
Immediately after Harrison's inauguration Harrison died, was succeeded by the doctrinaire __________________, and the political climate of the country changed dramatically.
John Tyler
English authors Frances Trollope and Charles Dickens both visited the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century and concluded that Americans were _____________________
crude
The famous book in which Alexis de Tocqueville analyzed American society was __________
democracy in America
For Tocqueville, the most striking condition of American society was its ________________
equality
In the early nineteenth century the American population was ___________ about every 20 years.
doubling
The most significant development in urban population trends from 1820 to 1850 was the emergence of _________________
new towns
A typical theme of the Second Great Awakening was that people could take their ____________ into their own hands.
salvation
Evangelist Charles Grandison Finney's success depended upon _______________ through personal testimony of salvation.
emotional release
The communitarian group whose members were celibate, held their property in common, valued simplicity and industriousness, stressed equality of labor, and practiced a joyful and fervent religion was ________________
shakers
Joseph Smith was founder of the _________________
mormons
The Illinois town founded by Mormon leader Joseph Smith as a semi-independent state within the federal Union was ___________________
Nauvoo
The pioneer in developing methods for educating deaf people who opened a school for deaf students in 1817 was __________________
Gaullaudet
The name most closely associated with the reform of institutions for the insane was ________________
dorthia dix (not sure on spelling)
During the 1820s Americans' per capita consumption of __________________ increased to the highest point ever in American experience.
alcohol
The effectiveness of the temperance movement was greatly enhanced by the correlation between alcoholic consumption and __________________
crime
The organization of reformed drunkards which focused on reclaiming alcoholics from the gutter was the ________________________
washingtonians
Catholic immigrants from Germany and Ireland often objected to demands for _____________ of all alcohol.
prohibition
Although involved in many reforms, William Lloyd Garrison is best known for his activities in the cause of ____________________
abolition
William Lloyd Garrison's views on slavery might best be described as __________________
uncompromising
The most influential black abolitionist was _______________________
Frederick Douglass
In his autobiography and speeches, Frederick Douglass insisted that full social, political, and _________________equality for blacks was required
economic
An important factor in encouraging the growth of the women's rights movement was the female abolitionists' recognition that, like the slaves, they were born into the ________________, which destined them for menial roles in society.
caste system
One of the few advocates of women's rights who did not begin her career in the abolitionist movement and who made a frontal assault on all forms of sexual discrimination in Women in the Nineteenth Century was ___________________
Margaret Fuller
The co-organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention and author of its Declaration of Sentiments was _______________________
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Susan B. Anthony played a prominent role in the ______________________ because she was the first to see the need for thorough organization
woman rights movement
The ____________ was an early nineteenth century development that constituted the combined solution to the problems of locating sufficient capital, transporting raw materials to factories and products to consumers, and supervising large numbers of workers.
Market Revolution
The first American factory was developed by ____________________
Samuel Slatar
The merchant who headed the Boston Associates, owners of the innovative Waltham mills, was _________________
Francis Lowell
Most workers in the earliest textile factories were women and _________________
children
Under the "Waltham System," young farm women worked and lived under ______________
very harsh conditions
The American population more than doubled between 1790 and 1820 primarily because of the ____________________
high birth rate
In the 1830s and 1840s thousands of poor and wretched immigrants flooded into America from Ireland and _______________
Germany
According to your text, by far the most important indirect effect of industrialization occurred when the South began to produce cotton to supply the new textile mills of _____________________
New England and Britain
The inventor of a cotton gin, which removed seeds from upland cotton, was ________________
Eli Whitney
For a generation after 1815, the most expansive force in the American economy was ____________________
Cotton
A successful and bloody slave revolt led to the creation in 1804 of the black republic of _________________________
Haiti
The Republic of Liberia in western Africa was founded by _______________________
American Colonization society
The shift to cotton production caused a demand for more labor which was met by a renewed growth of __________________
slavery
By 1820, interstate slave trade in the South was _______________________
an organized business
The natural highway for western commerce and communication in the early 19th century was the __________ River.
Mississippi
In the 1790s and early 1800s private companies built roads called _________________
turnpikes
American inventor Robert Fulton perfected the first commercially successful ________________
steamboat
A major improvement in the transportation network in the 1820s and 1830s was the construction of ______________________
canals
The greatest advantage which early canals offered was _______________________
a link between the midwest and the atlantic
The mayor of New York City who organized information and political influence to convince the state legislature to construct the Erie Canal was ______________________
governor Clinton
Immediately after the Erie Canal was completed, it was a ____________________
success
The Erie Canal solidly established ____________________ importance in commerce
New York City
The Supreme Court's decision in Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) upheld the principle of the sanctity of _____________________
contrast
Between _________ and _________, American culture evolved into a distinctive and American culture.
1830, 1850
The only American novelist before 1830 to use the national heritage effectively was ________________
James Fenmore Cooper
The leading light of New York literature and author of such humorous tales as "Rip Van Winkle" was _______________
Washington Irving
Both Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau objected to many of society's restrictions on the ______________.
individual
In Walden _________________ both described his experiment of living without the products of civilization and attacked the unthinking conformity of the average American.
Henry David Thoreau
The American transcendentalist who defended his refusal to pay taxes to support the Mexican War in his essay "Civil Disobedience" was _____________
Henry David Thoreau
The American writer whose works are filled with examples of wild imagination and fascination with mystery, fright, and the occult was ____________
Edgar Allen Poe
Probably the best writer whose subject was puritan New England was ____________
Nathaniel Hawthorne
One of Hawthorne's greatest works was his grim, but sympathetic analysis of the consequences of adultery, ___________________
The Scarlet Letter
___________________ shared Nathaniel Hawthorne's dark view of human nature.
Herman Melville
Herman Melville's book which your text calls "one of the finest novels written by an American" is ________________
Moby Dick
Walt Whitman's book of poems in rambling free verse on commonplace topics in coarse language was __________________
leaves of grass
Currier and Ives achieved tremendous success in the production and sale of charming __________________
lithographs
One of the most effective leaders of the common school movement was ________________
Horace Mann
By the 1850s the common school movement had succeeded in establishing free elementary schools and public institutions for ____________________ in every state outside the South.
training teachers
The cultural center for American art and music in the Jacksonian America was __________________
Philadelphia
One example of why _________________ became the center of trans-Allegheny culture was that it was in Cincinnati that the first Beethoven symphony was performed in America.
Cincinatti
The most basic goal of the __________________ movement was education for democracy.
common school
The typically romantic architecture which valued irregularity of style and is represented by the Smithsonian Institution is called ___________________
American Gothic
The greatest expression of Romanticism in the United States was through __________________
transcendentalism
"The American Scholar" was a plea for Americans to be American by ____________________
Emerson
Most American novelists of the early national period slavishly imitated _____________ writers.
British
The staunch states' rights advocate who became president when William Henry Harrison died was _____________________
John Tyler
Before Texas gained its independence in 1836, a major conflict between American settlers in Texas and the Mexican government was Mexico's abolition of _________________.
slavery
According to your text, in the battle over the independence of Texas, the slaughters at Goliad and at ________, a former mission, made peaceful settlement of the dispute with Mexico almost impossible.
Alamo
The leader of the Texas independence movement and first president of the Republic of Texas was ______________________
Sam Houston
Manifest Destiny might best be described as the belief that _______________ were God's chosen people.
Americans
One significant aspect of life on the westward trail in the 1840s was that it was especially taxing for __________________.
women
Mexico's main grievance against the United States was based upon the annexation of ____________________.
Texas
In the _______________________ the president led the nation into war without a formal declaration of war from Congress.
Mexican-American War
The campaign against Mexico City was commanded by General ______________________
Winfield Scott
The Mexican War was ended by the Treaty of _________________________
Guadalupe Hidalgo
Under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States gained _______________ and Upper California.
New Mexico
Slavery erupted as a divisive issue after the ____________________ over the question of slavery in the territory conquered from Mexico.
Mexican War
The original advocate of organizing new territories on the basis of "popular sovereignty" was _________________________
Lewis Cass
Zachary Taylor was chosen to run for president by the ________________ in 1848 because of his military career.
whigs
In 1849 approximately 80,000 Americans migrated to __________________ because of the start of the gold rush.
California
California's possible admission as a free state caused such a furor because it broke the ______________________ in the Senate between slave and free states.
Balance of Power
The senator who initially organized the legislative program which became the Compromise of 1850 was _________________________
Henry Clay
When Zachary Taylor died, the politician who became president and was instrumental in achieving the Compromise of 1850 was _______________________
Millard Filmore
The Compromise of 1850 included admitting __________ as a free state.
California
What was the public reaction to the Compromise of 1850? Mass meetings throughout the country were held to ______________________ it.
support