Excelsior U.S. History Unit 3 (Ch. 8)

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Louis Sullivan
An architect who designed sky-scrapers (built the first 10-story building). Sullivan was able to accomplish this because of the invention of elevators and the development of internal steel skeletons to bear the weight of buildings.
Daniel Burnham
An architect who designed sky-scrapers (designed the flat-iron building in New York). Burnham was able to accomplish this because of the invention of elevators and the development of internal steel skeletons to bear the weight of buildings.
Frederick Law Olmsted
Landscape architect who spearheaded the movement for planned urban parks.
Orville and Wilbur Wright
Bicycle manufacturers who pioneered the first airplane. They built a glider, put a four cylinder engine in it, chose a propeller and watched the first airplane take flight for 12 seconds going about 120 feet on December 17,1903.
George Eastman
Developed the Kodak camera which used roll film instead of heavy glass plates like had been used in the past.
Booker T. Washington
Believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved themselves valuable to society by economic means.
Tuskegee National and Industrial Institute
University aimed at teaching useful skills in agriculture, domestic and mechanical work.
W. E. B. Du Bois
First African American to receive doctorate from Harvard. Believed that blacks were equal in every way to others.
Niagara Movement
Group dedicated to seeing blacks seek a liberal arts education so they would have well-educated leaders.
Ida B. Wells
African American woman who wrote and lectured for civil rights.
Poll Tax
Voting restriction requiring an annual tax which must be paid in order to be allowed to vote. Another restriction on voting was the literacy test. In order to be allowed to vote, you had to pass a reading test. These laws were the hardest on African Americans who had been slaves and did not have the benefit of an education and were not paid decent wages to allow for the extra money to pay the tax.
Grandfather Clause
A clause in the constitution which said that even if a person failed the literacy test or couldn't pay the poll tax, they would be allowed to vote if their father or grandfather had been eligible to vote. This strongly favored white voters whose parents had been voters before, while at the same time, holding back black voters from their right to vote.
Segregation
A racial law to separate white and black people in public and private facilities.
Jim Crow laws
The common name for the laws of segregation. Racial segregation was put into effect in schools, hospitals, parks, and transportation systems throughout the South.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
The U.S. Supreme Court case which ruled that separate but equal accommodations was legal and did not violate the 14th Amendment. As a result, racial segregation was legal in America until the decision was overturned in 1954 with Brown vs. The Board of Education.
Debt Peonage
A system which bound laborers into slavery in order to work off a debt to an employer. This was particularly true for African American and Mexican workers. In the west, Mexican laborers worked on the railroads and in agriculture in order to provide for their families.
Joseph Pulitzer
Owned the "New York World" and pioneered popular innovations.
William Randolph Hearst
Owned the "New York Morning Journal" and used exaggerated tales to sell papers.
Ashcan school
A school of art which painted urban life with realism.
Mark Twain
Popular fiction writer who sought to throw off the formal mechanisms of literature and ended up writing some of the classics of American literature in the process.
Popular Fiction
As literary rates rose, people wanted things to read. Novelists talking about the adventurous American spirit were sought after, but more popular were "dime novels" which were easy to read, short books sold for a literal dime.
Rural Free Delivery (RFD)
A system employed by the U.S. Post Office that brought packages directly to the door.
Expanding Public Education
Around the Turn of the Century, laws passed requiring students between the ages of 8 and 14 to be in school for 12 to 16 weeks each year. Kindergartens began being added to public schools. High schools added advanced technical and business courses as well as science and civics. However, it wouldn't be until the 1940s that public education became available to the majority of black children. At the turn of the century, the schools were composed of 60%+ of white students and only 30%+ of black.
American Leisure
The turn of the century brought lots of interesting new ways for Americans to relax. New parks and recreation areas were built in the cities, and amusement parks like Coney Island were build outside major cities. Bicycles got an upgrade to lighter, air-filled tires which were easier to use and more and more people enjoyed the activity. In fact, a new type of attire for ladies allowed them to enjoy the activity as well and it gave women a new found freedom they had not enjoyed prior to then. Tennis also became immensely popular during this time, and the first spectator sports including the beginnings of baseball.

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