Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

For Biology I students at Christian Life School


An organism that is capable of capturing light energy and making their own food






An organism that cannot make its own food but relies on other organisms for their energy



What is ATP?

A small, usable unit of energy

What does 'ATP' stand for?

Adenosine Triphosphate

What makes up ATP?

One Sugar ribose
One Adenine molecule
Three phosphates

Where is energy stored in an ATP?

Between the phosphate molecules

When is energy released from ATP?

When a phosphate breaks off the ATP


Adenosine Diphosphate; what results when a phosphate breaks off of an ATP


The process where green plants and algae absorb the sun's energy and convert it into stored chemical energy




To put together

Jan van Helmont

Scientist who concluded that plants were made up of water.

Joseph Priestly

Proved that plants needed something in the air to continue growing. That something was oxygen.

Jan Ingenhousz

Repeated experiments and found that the oxygen in the air was replenished only when plants were exposed to sunlight.

Melvin Calvin

Figured out that photosynthesis occured in steps rather than all at once.

Photosynthesis Equation (know it in both symbols and words!)


A green colored pigment that is the primary catalyst of photosynthesis






Sac-like main structures in the chloroplast where photosynthesis takes place


A stack of thylakoids


Clusters of pigment that absorb light energy from the sun.


Area outside of the thylakoids


An electron carrier that can carry 2 high-energy electrons.


A loosening


The process of breaking down a water molecule into its chemical components.

Light Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis (this will be fill-in-the-blank...and may not look exactly like this!)

*Photosystem II absorbs sunlight and energizes a couple of electrons.
*This takes place in the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast.
*As electrons gain energy, they are passed down the Electron Transport Chain (ETC).
*To replace lost electrons, water molecules are broken apart into their chemical parts. The oxygens (O) are released into the environment. The hydrogen ions (H+) are pumped across to the inner thylakoid membrane. The electrons (e-) are sent down the ETC.
*As the electrons move down the ETC they lose energy. They are re-energized by sunlight when they reach Photosystem I.
*When electrons reach the end of the ETC, they are joined with NADP+ and H+ to form NADPH.
*While electrons travel down the chain, they create enough energy to shoot hydrogen ions to the inner thylakoid space. This causes a concentration gradient to occur.
*Since the hydrogen ions cannot come back across the membrane without help, they use ATP synthase to bring them back to the stroma. As ATP synthase spins, it creates enough energy to bond an ADP and phosphate together creating ATP.
*The ATP and NADPH will be used in the Light-Independent Reactions.

Light-Independent Reactions (Calvin Cycle)
(this will be fill-in-the-blank)

*Six carbon dioxide (CO2) molecules diffuse into the stroma of the chloroplat and attach to 6 5-carbon sugars already in the stroma.
*This creates six 6-carbon molecules that are very unstable and quickly break apart to form 12 3-carbon molecules.
*ATP and NADPH give the energy necessary to perform these reactions.
*Two of the 12 3-carbon molecules are removed from the cycle and are used to form sugars, lipids, amino acids, and other organic molecules.
The remaining 10 3-carbon molecules are converted back into six 5-carbon molecules and are recycled so the process can continue.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording