Excelsior U.S. History Unit 3 (Ch. 9)

STUDY
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Progressive Movement
Aimed to restore economic opportunities and correct injustices in American life. The main goals included protecting social welfare, promoting moral improvement, creating economic reform, and fostering efficiency.
Florence Kelley
Advocate for womens and childrens rights. Became Chief Inspector of factories in Illinois.
Prohibition
The banning of alcoholic beverages. This idea was born of reformers who believed that alcohol was to blame for lowering American morals and keeping poor people poor.
Muckraker
Common name for the journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of business and public life.
Women in the Workforce
At the turn of the century, only wealthy women could afford to stay home and take care of the family. Poor women found work on farms, in industry, in offices and classrooms (which required a high school education), and as domestic workers (house-keepers and cooks).
Scientific Management
The idea of utilizing time and motion studies to determine who quickly a task can be performed.
Robert M. La Follette
Governor of Wisconsin who targeted progressivism in the railroad industry.
Reforming Elections: Initiatives, Referendums, and Recalls
These gave citizens the power to create laws. An initiative is a bill originated by the people not the lawmakers. A referendum is a vote on an initiative. A recall enabled voters to remove an official from office.
Seventeenth Amendment
Allowed for the direct election of Senators.
NACW
National Association of Colored Women
Suffrage
The right to vote. This word is used regardless of gender or ethnicity, but has become synonymous with women's rights. There is a new movie coming out in 2015 called Suffragette about this and HBO had a miniseries called Iron Jawed Angels that deals with this as well.
Susan B. Anthony
A leader for women's suffrage. She co-founded the National Women Suffrage Association, which united with another group in 1890 to form NAWSA.
NAWSA
National American Woman Suffrage Association
Upton Sinclair
Muckraking journalist who wrote "The Jungle"
"The Jungle"
Book written by Upton Sinclair exposing corruption and malpractice in a variety of fields, however, it was his expose on the sickening conditions of the meatpacking industry which got national attention. He was even invited to The White House to meet President Roosevelt and discuss his findings.
Theodore Roosevelt
President of the United States from 1901-1908. A champion of progressivism but not of civil rights. He saw the presidency as a "bully pulpit" from which he could influence the news media and shape legislation. He came up with the Square Deal legislation.
Square Deal
Term used to describe the various progressive reforms sponsored by the Roosevelt administration.
Meat Inspection Act
Congressional Act which required strict cleanliness in the meat packing industry.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Congressional Act which halted the sale of contaminated foods and medicines and called for truth in labeling. This law reflected the progressive belief that given accurate information, people would choose wisely.
Conservation
The idea that the resources of an area must be utilized wisely and conserved over time. John Muir wanted complete preservation of the natural resources. However, to President Roosevelt and others (including Gifford Pinchot), conservation meant that some wilderness areas should be preserved while others would be developed for the common good. Under President Roosevelt, the beginnings of our National Parks system began.
NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Their aim was for nothing less than full equality among the races. It was established by W.E.B. Du Bois among others.
Gifford Pinchot
Head of the U.S. Forest service who took a middle ground with regard to conservation. John Muir wanted complete preservation of the natural resources. However, to President Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot, conservation meant that some wilderness areas should be preserved while others would be developed for the common good. In other words, the land could be used for multiple purposes.
William Howard Taft
President of the United States after Roosevelt. He was a middle of the road President when it came to the progressive movement which angered both progressives and conservatives. When Theodore Roosevelt decided to run for President again in 1912 under a new political party, the Progressive Party (known as the Bull Moose Party), the Republican vote was split between the progressive Roosevelt and the more moderate Taft. As a result, the Republicans lost the election and Woodrow Wilson became President.
Payne-Aldrich Tariff
A compromise on tariffs which progressivists believed did not do enough to lower tariffs.
Bull Moose Party
The common name for the Progressive Party.
Woodrow Wilson
President of the United States after Taft. He championed many reforms and progressive movement issues such as tax reform and anti-trust laws, and the nineteenth amendment granting women the right to vote, among others. However, World War I put an end to the Progressive Era as America prepared to enter the theater of war.
Carrie Chapman Catt
President of NAWSA during the Wilson administration
Clayton Antitrust Act
Legislation prohibiting the acquisition of stock if it created a monopoly
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
A "watchdog" agency given power to investigate unfair business practices.
Federal Reserve System
President Wilson's system to strengthen the ways banks run.
Nineteenth Amendment
Granted women the right to vote in 1919.
Using Federal Power
President Roosevelt broke new ground in many ways, including breaking up trusts (the legal bodies created to hold stock in many companies), by stepping in to prevent a strike by coal workers in 1902, and by regulating the railroads prices and creating the Interstate Commerce Commission.

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