Upgrade to remove ads
TESOL 1 Midterm Study Guide Over the Horwitz Text
Terms in this set (58)
Refers to the process of learning to function appropriately and becoming comfortable functioning within the target language culture.
According to Stephen Krashen, this filter determines learners' receptivity to second language input. It is made up of emotional factors connected to language learning, such as motivation to learn the language, anxiety, and feelings toward target language speakers and the target culture. It determines whether target language input because in-take.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
One of two types of second language proficiency described by James Cummins. This terms refers to a type of everyday language commonly used for social interaction. Also referred as social language or playground language.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
One of two types of second language proficiency described by James Cummins and also referred to as academic language. This term refers to a more abstract variety of language commonly used in academic classes.
An early second language acquisition theory that maintained that the structure of the learner's first language either helped or hindered the learning of a second language.
A biological concept referring to the idea that there is a specific moment in an animal's lifespan when a particular ability must be learned.
A state of anxiety, tension, and/or disorientation resulting from being exposed to or living within a different culture.
A consistent inaccuracy in the way the learner produces the target language. This type of inconsistency represents gaps in the learner's L2 competence.
A response that gives a conversational partner information about whether a previous comment has been understood and possibly offers suggestions for improvement.
Refers to the theory that errors in the target language can become permanent or at the very least extremely resistant to change.
Material to listen or read in the target language.
The negative influences or intrustions of the native language on second language learning. Also called negative transfer.
The way learners produce the target language. Learners' interlanguages are systematic and reflect learners' implicit linguistic knowledge.
The rising and falling of the tone of voice when speaking.
Negotiation of Meaning
The process of collaboration and negotiation in communication between conversational partners. Conversational partners must come to a joint understanding of what a conversation is about. Conversation theories maintain that negotiation can assist the learner's linguistic development by pointing out connections between words and phrases and their meanings.
A term used to describe the act of a more proficient target language speaker supporting a conversation so that less proficient speakers with limited linguistic resources can participate.
Mental representations of knowledge.
The second or foreign language of instruction.
Basic patterns or principles shared by all languages.
Zone of Proximal Development
Refers to the distance between the kind of language learners are about to produce on their own and the language they can construct with the support of other through scaffolding. It implies that as the learner's interlanguage develops, it will be ready to integrate the next appropriate language structure(s). This term is associated with sociocultural theories of SLA and comes from the work of Lev Vygotsky.
Refers to language learning or teaching within an area where the target language is spoken.
Refers to language learning or teaching in an overseas context.
Stand Alone Classes
Separate classes focusing on language instruction that students attend for at least part of the school day.
Refers to learning or teaching English within an area where English is spoken.
Mainstream School Programs
The regular school program which is not specifically organized for language learners.
An ESL program where students leave their regular mainstream classes for special language instruction.
An educational program where students receive instruction in both their first and second languages to keep them from falling behind in their content learning and to encourage the development of their first language while they are learning English.
Instructional practice where language learners are put into a target language environment and are given additional assistance because they are not yet competent in the new language.
How the learner feels about the new language and culture.
Goals for language learning. Includes Instrumental Motivation - learning a language to pass school or get a job, Integrative Motivation - to get to know the people, Assimilation Motivation - A desire to join the new culture, and Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation.
Uncomfortable feelings that some people have when they have to use a second language.
How likely people are to be successful at a new language.
A learner's natural and preferred orientation to learning. Considered a cognitive characteristic.
A widely studied learning style variable associated with language learning. FD learners tend to be influenced by the overall setting (called a field) while FI are better able to ignore the overall field and focus in on details.
How learners think about and control their language learning. Includes learners' beliefs about language learning and use of different language learning strategies.
Language learners beliefs about important issues in second language acquisition, such as how languages should be studied, how difficult it is to learn particular languages, who has language aptitude, and what makes a good language teacher. Some learner beliefs may be helpful while others can be counterproductive to language learning, such as misconceptions.
Language learning strategies that use the target language. They include memory strategies, cognitive strategies, and compensation strategies.
Strategies that support language learning without using the language directly. These include metacognitive strategies, which help learners organize and plan their learning; affective strategies, which help learners manage language learning emotions; and social strategies, which involve interaction with other people.
Learners read by sounding out individual words and attempting to understand a text by processing every sound and word. It is associated with a phonics approach to reading. When applied to listening, learners attempt to understand text by understanding or translating each word individually.
Application of background knowledge by learners to focus on understanding a target language utterance, text, or anecdote as a whole. Learners use the predictability of the text's content and grammatical patterns in their target language to guess the meaning of unfamiliar words or phrases.
Classroom conversation that is as lifelike and meaningful as possible.
The teacher already knows the answer to these questions and only asks them to find out if the students know the answers and if they did their assignment.
Unlike an error, this phenomenon is similar to the slips of the tongue that native speakers make when speaking their L1.
The reading of a relatively short text for a thorough understanding of the content, grammar, vocabulary, and organization.
When students read longer texts with the goal of achieving a general rather than a close understanding of the material.
A teaching approach to reading that emphasizes correspondences between sounds and symbols (letters) and encourages students to sound out words as the basis of reading. Related to bottom-up processing.
Whole Language Approach
A teaching approach to reading that allows readers to get a general sense of the meaning of a reading passage and use their general knowledge of the world and the predictability of the grammatical patterns in their target language to guess the meaning of unfamiliar words or phrases. Related to top-down processing.
A writing activity that requires specific grammatical structures or content.
Similar to authentic oral communication and free expression writing, these kinds of writing activities focus on meaning and students are not limited to the vocabulary and structures they have already studied.
Type of writing activity in which the student typically self-selects the theme. Activities associated with this writing include weekly free-writing assignments, diaries and journals, and dialogue journals.
An extended written conversation, usually betwen a teacher and a student, similar to letter writing.
Computer Mediated Communication (CMC)
Refers to communication via in-class or out-of-class computer networks. CMC exchanges can be either synchronous (immediate like texting) or asynchronous (with a time lag like e-mail).
These learners are long-time immigrants to the United States who are not literate in their first language and also have language problems in English. They are called this because they have characteristics of both first- and second-generation immigrants. Like second-generation immigrants, they can seem very acculturated to American society; but like first-generation immigrants, they may not be literate in English.
Refers to learners studying a target language that is also their heritage language. This person may speak or only understand the heritage language.
Language and Content Objectives
Language objectives look for verbs like "retell", "define", "compare", and "summarize". Content objectives look for verbs like "identify", "solve", "distinguish", and "create".
The effect of tests on language instruction and the language curriculum. The ACTFL OPI, for example, has caused foreign language classes in the United States to focus more on oral communication.
Reflections by students on their academic strengths and weaknesses. With respect to language testing, these are usually groups of statements that describe various ways a person might use the target language. Learners rate their ability to accomplish the specific task included in each statement.
Type of assessment used to test reading or grammatical knowledge. Written passages in the target language that have had words deleted; the students are expected to read the passage and fill in each blank.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
TESOL Praxis 5362
ESL Vocabulary Practice
Summer SLA Review
Combo ESL Praxis 5361 Study Guide
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
MTEL ESL Study Guide
LIN final exam
ESL Important Theorists
TESOL Praxis Exam
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Vocab Set 1