41 terms

APES Vocab Ch 4

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Chemosynthesis
a process used by some bacteria in the ocean to generate energy with methane and hydrogen sulfide
Upwelling
the upward movement of ocean water toward the surface as the result of diverging currents
Aphotic Zone
the layer of ocean water that lacks sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis
Tropical Seasonal Forests/Savannas
a biome marked by warms temperatures and distinct wet and dry seasons
Gyres
a large-scale pattern of water circulation that moves clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere
Photic Zone
the upper layer of water in the ocean that receives enough sunlight for photosynthesis
Tropical Rainforest
a warm and wet biome found between 20 N and 20 S of the equator with little seasonal temperature variation and high precipitation
Coriolis Effect
the deflection of an objects path due to the rotation of earth
Coral Bleaching
a phenomenon in which algae inside corals die causing the corals to turn white
Temperate Grassland/Cold Desert
a biome characterized by cold, harsh winters and hot, dry summers
Polar Cells
a convection cell in the atmosphere formed by air that rises at 60 degrees N and 60 S and sinks at the poles 90 N and 90 S
Coral Reef
the most diverse marine biome on earth found on warm shallow waters beyond the shoreline
Woodland/Shrubland
a biome characterized by hot, dry summer and mild, rainy winters
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
an area of earth that receives the most intense sunlight; where the ascending branches of the two Hadley cells converge
Intertidal Zone
the narrow band of coastline between the levels of high tide and low tide
Temperate Seasonal Rainforest
a biome with warmer summers and colder winters than temperate rain forests and dominated by deciduous trees
Hadley Cell
a convention current in the atmosphere that cycles between the equator and 30 degrees N and 30 degrees S
Mangrove Swamp
swamps that occur along tropical coasts and contains salt tolerant trees with roots submerged in water
Temperate Rainforest
a coastal biome typified by moderate temperatures and high precipitation
Latent Heat Release
the release of energy when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid water
Salt Marsh
a marsh containing non-woody emergent vegetation found along the coast in temperate climates
Boreal Forest
forest made up primarily of coniferous evergreen trees that can tolerate cold winters and short growing seasons
Adiabatic Heating
the heating effect of increased pressure on air as it sinks toward the surface of earth and decreases in volume
Benthic Zone
the muddy bottom of a lake, pond, or ocean
Permafrost
an impermeable permanently frozen layer of soil
Adiabatic Cooling
the cooling effect of reduced pressure on air as it rises higher in the atmosphere and expands
Profundal Zone
a region of water where sunlight does not reach, below the limnetic zone in very deep lakes
Tundra
a cold and treeless biome with low growing vegetation
Saturation Point
the maximum amount of water vapor in the end at a given temperature
Phytoplankton
floating algae
Biomes
a geographic region categorized by a particular combination of average annual temperature, precipitation, and distinctive plant growth forms on land, and a particular combination salinity, depth, and water flow in the water
Albedo
the percentage of incoming sunlight reflected from the surface
Limnetic Zone
a zone of open water in lakes and ponds
Rain Shadow
a region with dry conditions found on the leeward side of a mountain range as a result of humid winds from the ocean causing precipitation on the windward side
Stratosphere
the layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere, extending roughly 16 to 50 km above the surface
Littoral Zone
the shallow zone of soil and water in lakes and ponds where most algae and emergent plants grow
El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
the periodic changes in winds and ocean currents, causing cooler and wetter conditions in the southeastern US and unusually dry weather in southern Africa and Southeast Asia
Troposphere
a layer of the atmosphere closest to the surface of earth, extending up to approximately 16 km and containing most of the atmospheres nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapor
Subtropical Deserts
a biome prevailing at approximately 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south, with hot temperatures, extremely dry conditions, and sparse vegetation
Thermohaline Circulation
an oceanic circulation pattern that drives the mixing of surface water and deep water
Climate
the average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period of time