48 terms

Unit 7: Evolution

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Natural selection
A population of organisms can change over generations if individuals having certain heritable traits leave more offspring that others.
Adaption
Trait shaped by natural selection that increases an organism's natural success.
Evolution
Change in genetic composition of a population over time.
Linnaeus
Binomial nomenclature system.
Classification for living things.
Cuvier
Worldwide catastrophies.
God created a new set of species after each one.
Lamarck
Environment could bring inherited change.
Lyell
Wrote principles of geology.
Supported theory of geological change.
Homologous structures
Structures that are anatomically similar because the traits evolved together.
Analogous structures
Structures that are anatomically similar but the traits evolved separately.
Vestigial structures
Physical features that are reduced and unused
Molecular biology
Similarities in genes and proteins that show relatedness
Mutation
Changes in DNA introduce variation in population.
Gene flow
Movement of alleles between populations.
Nonrandom mating
Mating that does not occur by chance.
Genetic drift
Change in allele frequency due to chance.
Bottleneck effect
Sudden shrinking of population. Ex. Natural disasters
Founder effect
A small population is separated from another population.
Stabilizing
Intermediate phenotype favored.
Directional
Extreme phenotype is favored.
Disruptive
Two or more phenotype favored.
Species
A group of organisms that can breed amongst each other and produce fertile offspring.
Prezygotic
Before zygote
Postzygotic
After zygote
Habitat isolation
Species occur in different areas.
Temporal isolation
Species occur during different times of day, different seasons, etc.
Behavioral isolation
Unique patterns and rituals isolate species.
Mechanical isolation
Morphological differences in reproductive organs prevent successful mating.
Gametic isolation
Sperm of species not able to fertilize eggs of another species.
Zygote mortality
Zygote cannot develop.
Hybrid sterility
Hybrid offspring cannot produce fertile offspring. (Children sterile)
F2 fitness
Hybrids can have offspring, but they are not fertile. (grandchildren sterile)
Allopatric speciation
Physical barrier between organisms.
Adaptive radiation
Many species evolve from a single species.
Sympathetic speciation
Speciation takes place in the same geographic place.
Gradualism
Organisms evolve gradually through small changes over a long time.
Punctuated equilibrium
Organisms evolve quickly due to sudden environmental changes.
Theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics.
If an organism changes during life in order to adapt to its environment, those changes are passed on to its offspring.
Hardy Weinberg equation
p^2+2pq+q^2
p^2
Frequency of AA
p
Frequency of A
q^2
Frequency of aa
q
Frequency of a
2pq
Frequency of Aa
p+q=?
1
Microevolution
Change in gene frequencies between populations of a species over time.
Macroevolution
Large scale evolutionary change, such as the formation of a new species.
Inbreeding
Results in increased frequency of homozygotes in all gene loci.
Assortative mating
Results in increased frequency of homozygotes at only certain loci.