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25 terms

Skeleton Quiz

This is for my science quiz on skeleton and the body.
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1. What is osteoporosis and what does it do?
Osteoporosis is severe bone loss. This is very unhealthy and dangerous because the bone becomes brittle and easily fractures.
2. Describe the structure of bone.
Bones are made of a hard outer covering of compact bone, which surrounds the inside spongy bone. Cavities in the spongy bone are filled with soft tissue, and this tissue is called bone marrows. The bone is then surrounded and protected with a hard exterior called the eriostemon.
3. What makes up the axial skeleton? And the appendicular skeleton?
The axial skeleton contains bone of the skull, spine, ribs, and sternum, while the appendicular skeleton contains bones of the arms, legs, pelvis, and shoulder.
4. What are the differences between the four different types of tissue?
Epithelial Tissue is tissue that lines most body surfaces, and it protects other tissues from dehydration and physical damage. Nervous Tissue makes up the nervous system and consists of nerve cells and their supporting cells. They carry information throughout the body. Connective Tissue is tissue that supports, protects and insulates the body. It includes fat, cartilage, bone, tendons, and blood. Muscle Tissue is made of three kinds that enable the movement of body structures by muscle contraction. The three kinds are skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles.
Epithelial Tissue
tissue that lines most body surfaces, and it protects other tissues from dehydration and physical damage
Nervous Tissue
makes up the nervous system; consists of nerve cells and their supporting cells; they carry information throughout the body
Connective Tissue
this tissue supports, protects and insulates the body; includes fat, cartilage, bone, tendons, and blood; some are densely packed, others far apart
Muscle Tissue
there are three kinds that enable the movement of body structures by muscle contraction; the three kinds are skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles
Body Cavities
the body contains four large fluid-filled spaces; house and protect the major internal organs
Axial Skeleton
out of the 206 bones in the body, 80 form the axial skeleton; this includes the skull, spine, ribs, sternum
Appendicular Skeleton
the other 126 bones include arms, legs, pelvis, shoulder; this forms the appendicular skeleton
Bone Marrows
cavities in spongy bone are filled with soft tissue called bone marrow
Periosteum
bones are surrounded and protected by a tough exterior membrane called the periosteum
Haversion Canals
in compact bone, new bone cells are added in layers around narrow, hollow channels called haversion canals
Ostecytes
bone cells, which become embedded within the bone tissue
Osteoporosis
severe bone loss leads to this condition, which means "porous bone"; bones become brittle and easily fracture
Joint
the location at which two bones meet
Ligaments
the bones of a joint are held together by strong bands of connective tissue called ligaments
Tendons
most skeletal muscles are attached to bones by strips of dense connective tissue called tendons
Flexor
this causes a joint to bend
Extensor
this causes a joint to straighten
Actin
a protein filament enables muscles to contract; usually found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
Myosin
a protein filament enables muscles to contract; usually found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
Myofibrils
each muscle fiber contains small cylindrical structures called myofibrils
Sarcomere
the area between two Z lines is a sarcomere