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Ap world history chapter 20 terms


European trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants; utilized throughout Portuguese trading empire to assure secure landing places and commerce.

El Mina

Most important of early Portuguese trading factories in forest zone of Africa

Nzinga Mvemba

King of Kongo south of Zaire River from 1507 to 1543; converted to Christianity and took title Alfonso I; under Portuguese influence attempted to Christianize all of kingdom.


Portuguese factory established in 1520s south of Kongo; became basis for Portuguese colony of Angola.

Indies Piece

Term utilized within the complex exchange system established by the Spanish for African trade; referred to the value of an adult male slave

Triangular Trade

Commerce linking Africa, the New World colonies, and Europe; slaves carried to America for sugar and tobacco transported to Europe.

Royal African Company

Chartered in 1660s to establish a monopoly over the slave trade among British merchants; supplied African slaves to colonies in Barbados, Jamaica, and Virginia.


Established in Gold Coast among Akan people settled around Kumasi; dominated by Oyoko clan; many clans linked under Osei Tutu after 1650.

Osei Tutu

Member of Oyoko clan of Akan peoples in Gold Coast region of Africa; responsible for creating unified Asante Empire; utilized Western firearms


Title taken by ruler of Asante Empire; supreme civil and religious leader; authority symbolized by golden stool.


Kingdom developed among Fon or Aja peoples in 17th century; center at Abomey 70 miles from coast; under King Agaja expanded to control coastline and port of Whydah by 1727; accepted Western firearms and goods in return for African slaves.


Pastoral people of western Sudan; adopted purifying Sufi variant of Islam; under Usuman Dan Fodio in 1804, launched revolt against Hausa kingdoms; established state centered on Sokoto.


Wars of 19th century in southern Africa; created by Zulu expansion under Shaka; revolutionized political organization of southern Africa.


New African state formed on model of Zulu chiefdom; survived mfecane.


Southern African state that survived mfecane; not based on Zulu model; less emphasis on military organization, less authoritarian government.

Middle Passage

Slave voyage from Africa to the Americas; generally a traumatic experience for black slaves, although it failed to strip Africans of their culture.

Saltwater slaves

Slaves transported from Africa; almost invariably black.

Creole slaves

American-born descendants of saltwater slaves; result of sexual exploitation of slave women or process of miscegenation.


African religious ideas and practices in the English and French Caribbean islands.


African religious ideas and practices in Brazil, particularly among the Yoruba people.


African religious ideas and practices among descendants of African slaves in Haiti.


Kingdom of runaway slaves with a population of 8,000 to 10,000 people; located in Brazil during the 17th century; leadership was Angolan


Formerly a Dutch plantation colony on the coast of South America; location of runaway slave kingdom in 18th century; able to retain independence despite attempts to crush guerilla resistance.

William Wilberforce

British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807.

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