25 terms

APES: Chapter 22

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Terms in this set (...)

urbanization
the creation and growth of urban areas, or cities and their surrounding developed land. it is measured as the percentage of the people in a country or in the world living in urban areas.
urban growth
the rate of increase of urban populations
natural increase
increase in urban growth with more births than deaths
immigration
urban growth increase from people coming from rural areas.
pull factors to a urban area
jobs, food, housing, educational opportunities, better health care, entertainment, and freedom from religious, racial, and political conflicts. Also government policies favor urban areas.
push factors from a rural area
Poverty, lack of land for growing food, declining agricultural jobs, famine, war.
4 major trends or urban growth challenges and problems
proportions of the global population living in urban areas; urban areas are expanding rapidly in number and size; urban growth is much slower in developed countries than in developing countries; poverty is becoming increasingly urbanized, mostly in developing countries.
4 phases of US urbanization
people migrated from rural areas to large central cities; many people migrated from large central cities to suburbs and smaller cities; many people migrated from North to East and from South to West; some people have fled both cities and suburbs and migrated to developed rural areas.
exurbs
housing developments scattered over vast areas that lie beyond suburbs and have no socio-economic centers.
infrastructure
streets, bridges, schools, housing, water supply pipes, dams, and sewers.
urban sprawl
the growth of low-density development on the edges of cities and towns-eliminates surrounding agricultural and wild lands.
6 factors supporting urban sprawl
a lot of available land; federal government loan guarantees for new single-family homes or WWII veterans (1950s); low-cost gasoline federal and state funded highways; tax laws encouraging home ownership; state and local zoning laws favor large residential lots and separation of commercial and residential areas; areas consist of more than one political jurisdictions that don't work together.
megalopolis
80 kilometers long (500 miles) urban area with about 35 million people (sometimes called Bowash).
Urbanization disadvantages
huge ecological footprint; lack vegetation; water problems; concentrate pollution and health problems; noise pollution; different climate; light pollution.
noise pollution
any unwanted, disturbing, or harmful sound that impairs or interferes with hearing, causes stress, hampers concentration and work efficient or causes accidents.
slums
areas dominated by tenements and rooming houses where several people might live in a single room.
shanty-towns/squatter settlements
on outskirts of city; built from scraps of metal. plastic sheets, scrap wood, and other scavenged building materials, or they live in rusted shipping containers and junk cars. some are illegal due to land ownership.
land-use planning
planning to determine the best present and future uses of each parcel of land.
zoning
land-use planning devise most commonly used; various parts of land are designated for certain uses.
smart growth
one way to encourage sustainable development- discourages sprawl, reduces traffic, protects sensitive ecological areas and waterways. - clustered mixed-used neighborhood development, with stores, light industries, professional offices, high-density housing, mass transit, bus and rail way is quality.
urban growth boundary
preserve open space by drawing a urban growth line around each community and not allow any urban development beyond that boundary.
greenbelt
An open area reserved for recreation, sustainable forestry, and other nondestructive uses-absorb CO2 and other air pollutant. Ex Central Park.
cluster-development
High-density housing units are concentrated on one portion of a parcel of land, with the rest of it used for commonly shared open space.
new urbanism
Walkability; mixed-use and diversity (of people and land); urban design (pretty aesthetics and architecture); environmental sustainability (minimal environmental impact); smart transportation (train and bus systems).
eco-village movement (eco-hoods)
small groups of people come together to design and live in more sustainable villages in rural, suburban and urban areas.