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First Semester Science Exam Review
Terms in this set (83)
A logical CONCLUSION based on OBSERVATION and past EXPERIENCE.
information gathered DIRECTLY by using one or more of the SENSES.
A SMALL PIECE of a WHOLE.
A common MINERAL which FIZZLES when it comes in contact with HYDROCHLORIC ACID.
ROCKS that have CALCITE in them. They WILL FIZZ when touched with HYDROCHLORIC ACID.
SCIENTIST lthat studies ROCKS and MINERALS.
ROCKS made outof SAND PARTICLES CEMENTED TOGETHER.
A SMOOTH-TEXTURED NON-FIZZ rock.
Two important tools used by geologists.
1. HAND MIRRORS (HAND LENSES). 2. HYDROCHLORIC ACID.
John Wesley Powell.
FIRST WHITE MAN to TRAVEL the Colorado River through the FULL LENGTH OF THE GRAND CANYON.
A LARGE, NEARLY LEVEL AREA OF LAND that has been UP-LIFTED or ELEVATED above the surrounding area.
The SEQUENCE OF ROCKS from the TOP TO THE BOTTOM OF A LAND FORMATION.
ROCK LAYER COMPOSED OF MORE THAN ONE KIND OF ROCK.
OCCURS WHEN A MOUNTAIN OR PLATEAU IS MADE OUT OF SOFT OR WEAK ROCK AND HARD, STRONG ROCK. THE WEAKER ROCK WEARS AWAY FASTER LEAVING BEHIND LANDFORMS THAT LOOK LIKE STEPS OR CLIFFS.
A FLAT DEPOSIT OF ROCK.
To find a RELATIONSHIP or CONNECTION between 2 OR MORE LOCATIONS.
the vertical distance measured above sea level.
Flat deposits of rock that cover a large area.
geologists take rock samples and draw where they came from when they study an area
An example of a sedimentary rock.
Limestone and Sandstone
hard rock; will erode more slowly than soft rock
soft rock; will erode more quickly than hard rock.
the science of strata or layered rocks.
The present is the key to the past; the way things happen today is the way things heppened in the past.
The particles of Earth material that settle out of the water.
A representation of an object or a system that is too large, too small, or too remote in time and space to view directly.
The settling out of eroded material.
Level, like the floor ( & like the horizon)--not higher on one side than the other.
Thin layers that lie at different angles. they happen when wind blows sand over the edge of a dune or water moves sand down a stream.
Law of Superposition
The principle that states that rock layers get older the closer they are to the bottom column of rock (in horizontal layers).
The removal and transportation of loose Earth material.
Materlial that glues the sand together in sandstone.
Any remaining trace or imprint of a plant or animal that has been preserved in the Earth's crust since some past geological time.
Principle of original horizontality
The principle that states that layers of sediment are generally deposited in a horizontal or nearly horizontal position.
The lower area where eroded materials are deposited by flowing water.
The theory that sudden, violent, short-lived events are responsible for great changes to the earth's crust (opposite of uniformitarianism).
the vast amount of time that the earth has existed--at least 4.5 billion years.
The geological timescape
divides geological time into manageable chunks.
the largest division of geological time, all other divisions of geological time are smaller than an eon.
subdivisions of the Earth's history, based on the kinds of living organisms existed during this time (eras are tens to hundreds of millions of years in length).
the time between the ________________ of Earth and the appearance of the first complex forms of life.
the age of ancient life, which ende with the ____________________, during which 90% of the species living in the ocean disappeared.
the middle age of life, the time of the _________________.
the age of recent life, during which ___________________ thrived. We live in the Cenezoic era.
further subdivisions of the eras, based on evidence of major events that oook place in Earth's crust and/or on the general characteristics of the rock formations.
a subdivision of the Tertiary and Quaternary periods (the other periods are also divided int o epochs, but these epochs are used mainly by geologists specializing in the rocks that were deposited during these times).
represent the remains, traces, or imprints of organisms that once LIVED.
represent the remains of organisms that are now EXTINCT.
Life on Earth
has CHANGED over time. The differences in fossils found in rocks of different ages are indications of these changes.
the kinds of animals and plants found as fossils have changed through time.
a gap in the rock record.
Fossilized animals tracks
Fossils that provide evidence for the age of rock layers. The organisms lived for a relatively short amount of time and in many different places.
Iron-nickel inner core
The center-most portion of the Earth.
The most massive part of the planet just outside the core.
Molten rock, extremely hot, thick, dense, slow-moving fluie.
The rock that is formed when magma cools and crystallizes, and then changes from fluie to solid.
Intrusive igneous rock
Rock formed when it solidifies BELOW Earth's surface.
Extrusive igneous rock
Igneous rock solidifies when it comes to the SURFACE and spills out on the land.
Magma, when it comes to Earth's surface.
Rock that changes from one kind of rock to anothe kind of rocks. This happens because of pressure and heat.
The original rock that changes into the metamorphic rock.
This happens when minerals are cooled and change from a liquid to a solid.
The physical conditions of the air and the interactions that take place in it.
a measure of the amount of heat in a material, such as air
a tool that measures objective temperatures for scientific weather research and reporting.
(atmospheric pressure) the force of air pushing down on Earth.
a tool that is used to measure air pressure
the movement of air from a location of high pressure to a location of low pressure as pressure equalizes.
water in Earth's atmosphere; humidity, cloud type, cloud cover, precipitation, and dew point are all components that relate to moisture in the air.
water vapor in the air
a tool used to measure humidity
the study of day-to-day weather, specifically the conditions of and activity in the troposphere and lower stratosphere.
scientists who collect and analyze current weather data in order to forecast future weather.
the study of weather over long periods of time.
scientists who try to explain why climates differ across Earth and how changing climates relate to other factors in the environment.
the study of the physical conditions of the upper atmosphere--those layers above the troposphere and lower stratosphere--and the processes affecting it; aeronomy includes the investigations into OZONE LAYER CHEMISTRY and the AURORO BOREALIS, also known as the NORTHERN LIGHTS [and AURORA AUSTRALIS (SOUTHERN LIGHTS)].
the temperature at which water vapor condenses into liquid water
(pronounced GAGE) a tube with a wide opening at the top to collect rain and snow
extreme, dangerous weather, such as powerful winds and intense
an area of low pressure into which air rushes, creating powerful winds that spiral around a central eye, the wind blows at least 120 km/h (75 mph).
in a hurricane, the huge mountain of waterthat is piled up by the storm, when the wall of water hits the shore, the flood washes over everything.
lumps of ice that are normally fairly round and no larger than a centimeter in diameter, but may reach the size of tenis balls!
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