Hayden Clark Unit 4
Terms in this set (51)
A nerve cell; basic building block of the nervous system
The bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses towards the cell body.
The extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers.
A layer of fatty tissue segmental casing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transition speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.
The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gab at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
Chemical messages that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, they travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
The body's electrochemical communication network, consisting of all nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system.
Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System
The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.
Neural cables containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
Neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.
Neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.
Central nervous system that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles if the internal organs. Its sympathetic division arouses; Its parasympathetic division calms.
Sympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving it's energy.
A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response.
Interconnected neural cells. With experience, network can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results. Computer simulations of neural networks show analogous learning.
The body's slow chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream.
Chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another.
A pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. The adrenals secret the hormones epinephrine and norapinephrine, which help arouse the body in times of stress.
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
(Electroconvulsive Therapy) a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
(Positron Emission Tomography) scan- a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
(Magnetic Resonance Imaging) a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain.
(Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) a technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. MRI scans show brain anatomy; FMRI scan show brain brain function.
The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions.
The base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.
A nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
The brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; is directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance.
A doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
2 lima bean-sized neural clusters that are components pf the limbic system and are linked to emotion.
A neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion.
A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgement.
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position.
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying in the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field.
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear.
An area at the rear of the frontal lobes the controls voluntary movements.
The area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensation.
Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
Impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area ( impairing understanding).
Controls language expression- an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
Controls language reception- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.
The brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development.
The large band of neural fibers connecting the 2 brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
A condition in which the 2 hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them.
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