117 terms

US History Midterm Study Guide

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Virginia Colony
This colony was founded in 1607. First settlement was Jamestown. Charter to stock company/royal. Tobacco was vital to its survival.
Jamestown
The first permanent English settlement in North America on the banks of the James River in Virginia in 1607.
tobacco
Cash crop that made a profit and saved Jamestown
Powhatan
Local Indian chief who helped supply food to Jamestown.
House of Burgesses
1619 - the first legislative body in colonial America.
Bacon's Rebellion
- settlers in western Virginia rebel against governor. Showed frustration over govt. control by wealthy planters, willingness to figh
New England colonies
The term for the colonies of Massachusetts bay, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire - colonies with long, cold winters and a strict focus on religion
Middle Colonies
Delaware, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania -
colonies with mild winters, rich soil, and religious diversity
Southern Colonies
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia; very rural with large farms "plantations" with use of slave labor; tobacco, cotton, indigo, and rice were grown with tobacco being the largest cash crop
King Phillip's War
War between the Native American tribes of New England and British colonists that took place from 1675-1676. The war was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers. The chief of the Wampanoags, King Philip lead the natives. The war ended Indian resistance in New England and left a hatred of whites.
Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
Quakers
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preached a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
1681- William Penn received a land grant from King Charles II, and used it to form a colony that would provide a haven for Quakers. This colony allowed religious freedom.
Salem Witch Trials
1629 outbreak of witchcraft accusations in a Massachusetts Bay puritan village marked by an atmosphere of fear, hysteria and stress. Spectral evidence was used frequently.
Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
French settlement of Quebec
first French colony in North America; one of the main reasons the French wanted the Ohio River Valley was to connect this to Louisiana
mecantilism
system based on exporting more than a country imports, needs colonies to supply materials and be a market for goods, colonies can only trade with parent country
triangle trade
the trading system between the Americas, England and Africa; Africa would give slaves and rum to the Americas, including the West Indies; America would offer timber, tobacco, fish, and flour; England would mainly process and ship back
Middle Passage
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
Enlightenment
A popular philosophical movement of the 1700s that focused on human reasoning, natural science, political and ethical philosophy.
Ben Franklin
A delegate from Pennsylvania and proposed the "Albany Plan of the Union" as a way to strengthen colonies and diplomat sent to France to get help during revolution
Great Awakening
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
French and Indian War
(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Stamp Act
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
Intolerable Acts
series of laws passed in 1774 to punish Boston for the Tea Party
Coercive Acts
This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soldiers in their own homes.
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. Leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Daughters of Liberty
a group of women who stopped buying British goods such as cloth. Consequently, they had to make their cloth.
Committee of Correspondence
colonial organization organized in 1770 to spread news of Great Britain's actions and acts throughout the colonies
Common Sense
1776: a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Declaration of Independence
1776 statement, issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted independence from Britain. Inspired by Common Sense and Enlightenment ideals; inspired France and countries in Latin America to experience revolutions
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who joined General Washington's staff and became a general in the Continental Army.
Battle of Trenton
On Christmas day at night, Washington's soldiers began crossing the Delaware River. The next morning, they surprise attacked the British mercenaries which were Hessians.
George Washington
(1732-1799) no political party. Virginian who began as a commander and chief in the Revolutionary war. Had no desire to become president but the people wanted a strong national leader. Warned US against being involved in foreign politics.
Battle of Valley Forge
1777-1778, Washington and his men have a brutal winter, nearly don't make it, but then French alliance is secured, and Friedrich Von Steuben and Marquis De Lafayette (both french) train them to become a real army
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Treaty of Paris 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Daniel Shay's Rebellion
An armed rebellion of western Massachusetts farmers in 1786 to prevent state courts from foreclosing on debtors. Nationalists saw such unrest as proof of the inadequacy of the federal government under the Articles of Confederation.
Anti-Federalist
A group who opposed the ratification of the Constitution in 1787. They opposed a strong central government (tyranny) and supported states' rights.
Federalist
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
Checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
separation of powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
James Madison
"Father of the Constitution". His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan, which was the basis for the Constitution. He was responsible for drafting most of the language of the Constitution.
Alexander Hamilton
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
New Jersey Plan
Proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by William Paterson of New Jersey for a central government with a single-house legislature in which each state would be represented equally.
Virginia Plan
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
Great Compromise
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature (Senate) and representation based on population in the other house (House of Representatives)
3/5 Compromise
The population of slaves would be counted as three-fifths in total when apportioning Representatives, as well as Presidential electors and taxes. The Three-Fifths Compromise was proposed by James Wilson and Roger Sherman, who were both delegates for the Constitutional Convention of 1787.
Washington's Presidency
Precedents set by Washington: -First cabinet, five departments: State, Treasury, War, Attorney General and Postmaster General
Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Federalist Party
1792-1816. Formed by Alexander Hamilton. Controlled the government until 1801. Wanted strong nationalistic government. Opposed by Democratic Republicans. One of the 1st political parties in the US.
Democratic Republicans
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank. One of the 1st political parties in the US.
Northwest Ordinance
The 1787 Northwest Ordinance defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. He ordinance forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. The Northwest Ordinance was the most lasting measure of the national government under the Articles of Confederation
Louisiana Purchase
1803 - The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies.
War of 1812
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Erie Canal
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Eli Whitney
An American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged
cotton gin
Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. It removed seeds from cotton fibers. Now cotton could be processed quickly and cheaply. Results: more cotton is grown and more slaves are needed for more acres of cotton fields
Manifest Destiny
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
temperance movement
an organized effort to end alcohol abuse and the problems created by it
abolition movement
Campaign against slavery and the slave trade
public school movement
Statewide Common School System. Horace Mann, head of newly formed Massachusetts State Board of Education, supervised the creation of a statewide common school system.
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848; women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women; wrote the Declaration of Sentiments which tried to get women the right to vote.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
Andrew Jackson and War of 1812
His troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Jacksonian Democracy
A policy of spreading more political power to more people. It was a "Common Man" theme.
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
Nat Turner's Rebellion
The slave revolt that resulted in its leader and 19 others being hanged, the deaths of 160 people, the collapse of abolitionist societies in the South and stricter slave code.
abolitionists
people who believed that slavery should be against the law
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Frederick Douglass
One of the most prominent African American figures in the abolitionist movement; escaped from slavery; advocated freedom from slavery & full citizenship rights for all blacks; founded abolitionist paper "The North Star"
Grimke sisters
were 19th-century American Quakers, educators and writers who were early advocates of abolitionism and women's rights.
Missouri Compromise
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
Nullification Crisis
A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by the Ordinance of Nullification, an attempt by the state of South Carolina to nullify a federal law - the tariff of 1828 - passed by the United States Congress.
US war with Mexico
This was lasted from 1846-1848 between two countries. Finally, a the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed. In the agreement, one country had to give the other more than 500,000 square miles of territory and the Rio Grande was accepted as a border. The other country had to pay around $17 million.
Wilmot Proviso
1846 proposal that outlawed slavery in any territory gained from the War with Mexico
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
popular sovereignty
A government in which the people rule by their own consent.
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Gettysburg Address
(1863) a speech given by Abraham Lincoln after the Battle of Gettysburg, in which he praised the bravery of Union soldiers and renewed his commitment to winning the Civil War; supported the ideals of self-government and human rights
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Robert E Lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
he was a confederate general who was known for his fearlessness in leading rapid marches bold flanking movements and furious assaults. he earned his nickname at the battle of first bull run for standing courageously against union fire. During the battle of Chancellorsville his own men accidentally mortally wounded him.
William T. Sherman
general whose march to sea caused destruction to the south, union general, led march to destroy all supplies and resoures, beginning of total warfare
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
Battle of Ft. Sumter
A battle that started the war. And the confederates first victory
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
Battle of Vicksburg
1863, Union gains control of Mississippi, confederacy split in two, Grant takes lead of Union armies, total war begins
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
Battle of Atlanta
Federal troops under Sherman cut off the railroads supplying Atlanta and burned the city
Emancipation Proclamation
(1862) an order issued by President Abraham Lincoln freeing the slaves in areas rebelling against the Union; took effect January 1, 1863
suspension of habeas corpus
Federal judge Roger Taney, the chief justice of the Supreme Court (and also the author of the infamous Dred Scott decision), issued a ruling that President Lincoln did not have the authority to suspend habeas corpus. Lincoln didn't respond, appeal, or order the release of Merryman. But during a July 4 speech, Lincoln was defiant, insisting that he needed to suspend the rules in order to put down the rebellion in the South.
advantages of North during Civil War
a)larger population, b)most of the factories to make supplies, c)most of the railroads located in the north, d)strong Navy, e)more money, f)they had an established government
advantages of South during Civil War
a) had more experienced military leaders b) knowledge of the land c) belief in their cause
Election of 1876
Ended reconstruction because neither canidate had an electorial majority. Hayes was elected, and then ended reconstruction as he secretly promised
railroads
Were essential to westward expansion because they made it easier to travel to and live in the west
Transcontinental Railroad
A train route across the United States, finished in 1869. It was the project of two railroad companies: the Union Pacific built from the east, and the Central Pacific built from the west. The two lines met in Utah. The Central Pacific laborers were predominantly Chinese, and the Union Pacific laborers predominantly Irish. Both groups often worked under harsh conditions.
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate. American workers felt threatened by the job competition.
Robber Barron
Perception that a business owner has become successful through dishonest methods ex: John D. Rockefeller
Andrew Carnegie
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
John D. Rockefeller
Wealthy owner of Standard Oil Company. Considered to be a robber baron who used ruthless tactics to eliminate other businesses.
JP Morgan
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
trust
A group of corporations run by a single board of directors
Thomas Edison
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
Ellis Island
major entry point for European immigrants
Angel Island
The immigration station on the west coast where Asian immigrants, mostly Chinese gained admission to the U.S. at San Francisco Bay. Between 1910 and 1940 50k Chinese immigrants entered through this station.
AFL
A labor union formed in 1886 by Samuel Gompers in order to voice the working class (only highly skilled laborers). It fought against labor forces and debated work conditions for skilled workers. Utilized strikes.
Samuel Gompers
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
Wounded Knee
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered
Sitting Bull
American Indian chief, he lead the victory of Little Bighorn
Little Big Horn
General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
1894 Pullman Strike
A nationwide railroad strike in the US, it pitted the American Railway Union against Pullman Company, the main railroads, and the government. The boycott shutdown much of the nations freight passenger traffic west of Detroit Michigan. This conflict began in Pullman Chicago when 4,000 workers at the Pullman Company went on a wild strike because wages were reduced.