66 terms

HN USVA History Unit 4 - Disston (terms and people)

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republicanism
political theory of representative government based on the principle of popular sovereignty,
placed a strong emphasis on civic virtue and liberty;
very popular political belief of the 18th Century as an alternative to the monarchy

A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people.
The government is based on consent of the governed.

A form of government in which there is no monarch and power rests in the hands of the people as exercised through elected representatives.
mercantilism
economic theory that closely links a nation's political and military power with its finances;
mercantilists favored protectionism and colonial acquisition to increase exports

Economic policy that focuses on making $ for the mother country. It favors a positive balance of trade for the mother country and the accumulation of gold and silver
salutary neglect
unofficial policy of relaxed royal control over colonial trade and weak enforcement of the Navigation Acts;
this lasted from the Glorious Revolution to the end of the French and Indian War


An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies


An English policy of relaxing the enforcement of regulations in its colonies in return for the colonies' continued economic loyalty. Colonies became used to acting independently, influencing unrest when British rule in the colonies became more strictly regulated.
Stamp Act Congress
1765, assembly of delegates from 9 colonies who met in New York City to draft a petition for the repeal of the Stamp Act; this was largely ignored in England but widely promoted intercolonial unity


group of colonists who protested the Stamp Act,
saying that Parliament couldn't tax without colonist' consent.
No taxation without representation!
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
rebel groups,
mainly in Boston,
who tormented tax collectors and protested the unfair taxes from Britain

Organizations that led protests,
helped American soldiers,
instated a boycott,
and generally resisted the British. Led by Sam Adams
Boston Massacre
March 5, 1770; inevitable clash between Bostonians and British soldiers who fired on rowdy protestors; this killed and wounded a total of 11 people

The first bloodshed of the American Revolution (1770),
as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans
Committee of Correspondance
local committees established across Massachusetts,
and later in each of the 13 colonies,
that were created to maintain colonial opposition to British policy through the exchange of letters and pamphlets

A 21 member committee responsible for keeping the colonies and the rest of the world informed about the injustices Great Britain was making on her colonies.
Boston Tea Party
December 16, 1773: rowdy protest against the British East India Company's newly acquired monopoly on tea; Bostonians dressed as Native Americans, raided the British East India Company's ships, and dump all of their tea into the Boston Harbor
First Continental Congress
1774: convention of delegates from 12/13 colonies (Georgia did not show) that convened in Philadelphia to draft a response to the Intolerable Acts
the Association
most important action of the Continental Congress, nonimportation agreement that called for the boycott of all British goods; committees are formed to force these boycotts and if colonists do not comply with them, they are pressured into submission
Second Continental Congress
representative body of delegates from all 13 colonies that was called to Philadelphia in the summer of 1775; during this the Declaration of Independence was drafted and the colonial war effort was managed
Olive Branch Petition
July 1775, conciliatory measure adopted by the Continental Congress that professed American loyalty and sought to end hostilities between the colonies and Britain; King George rejected this and declared the colonies in rebellion
"Common Sense"
1776, pamphlet published by Thomas Paine that urged the colonies to declare independence and establish a republican government; this widely read pamphlet helped convince colonists to support the American revolution
Declaration of Independence
July 4th, 1776, formal pronouncement of independence drafted by Thomas Jefferson and approved by Congress; this allowed Americans to appeal for foreign aid and it served as a worldwide inspiration for future revolutions
Declaration of the Rights of Man
1789, declaration of rights adopted during the French Revolution which was modeled after Jefferson's Declaration of Independence
New Jersey Campaign
the battles of Trenton and Princeton, both American victories
Navigation Act
series of laws passed beginning in 1651 that regulated colonial shipping and stated that only English ships would be allowed to trade in English and colonial ports and that all goods destined for the colonies would first pass through England
Stamp Act
widely unpopular tax on paper goods; it was repealed in 1766 after a massive colonial protest; from this act the principle "no taxation without representation" was adopted by the colonies and the authority that Parliament had over the colonies was questioned; this also laid the framework for future revolutionary ideals
Quartering Act
required colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops; many colonists felt this was an encroachment on their rights
Townshend Act
indirect levies on glass, white lead, paper, paint and tea, the proceeds of which went to pay colonial governors who had previously been paid directly by colonial assemblies; these acts sparked another round of colonial protest
Sugar Act
1764, tax on imported sugar from the West Indies; first tax enforced from the Crown to the colonies and it was lowered significantly after widespread protest
Nonimportation Agreements
boycotts against British goods adopted in response to the Stamp Act, Townshend Acts, and Intolerable Acts; most effective form of colonial protest
Declaratory Act
passed after the repeal of the Stamp Act; this reaffirmed Parliament's unqualified sovereignty over the North American Colonies
Tea Act of 1773
designed to aid the floundering East India Company and in fact made tea cheaper; however colonists felt that it hurt colonial merchants and smugglers and was an effort to gain support for previous taxes
Intolerable Acts
response from Parliament to the Boston Tea Party: Parliament closed Boston Harbor, revoked many of the rights in the Massachusetts Bay Colony Charter, and expanded the Quartering Act as well as other things
Quebec Act
accompanied the Intolerable Acts, allowed the French residents in Quebec to maintain their political and religious practices and allowed them to expand their boundaries southward into the Ohio River Valley; colonists were enraged by this because they were prohibited from settling in the Ohio River Valley
Treaty of Paris of 1783
peace treaty signed by the British and the United States ending the Revolutionary War; the British formally recognized the American independence and ceded territory east of the Mississippi while the Americans promised to restore Loyalist property and pay debts to British creditors
Treaty of Alliance of 1778
An alliance between the US and France after the American Revolution. It was annulled after the death of the King during the French Revolution
Armed Neutrality
1780, loose allegiance of nonbelligerent naval powers organized by Catherine the Great of Russia and this was formed to protect neutral trading rights during the war for independence
John Hancock
wealthy smuggler and rebel leader in Boston; president of the Second Continental Congress
George Grenville
prime minister of Great Britain who enforced mercantilism and the Navigation Acts; he claimed that the colonists were ungrateful when the rebelled against the Stamp Act and is fired after the Stamp Act is repealed
Charles Townshend
representative in Parliament who persuades Parliament to tax glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea; these taxes become known as the Townshend Acts
Crispus Attucks
mob leader who was one of the first people shot in the Boston Massacre
King George III
King of England during the late 1700s, mainly the French and Indian War and the American Revolution; he caused much colonial rebellion
Lord North
corrupt man of Parliament who attempted to appease the colonies by repealing the Townshend Act but imposing the Tea Act
Sam Adams
Bostonian rebel who organized the committees of correspondence and the Boston Tea Party
Thomas Hutchinson
royal governor of Massachusetts whose home was destroyed by protestors of the Stamp Act and who agreed that the tea tax was unjust but believed that the colonist had no right in disobeying the law
Marquis de Lafayette
French officer who helped the Americans but could not secure further foreign aid from France
Baron von Steuben
Prussian drillmaster who came to Valley Forge and professionally trained the incompetent and unorganized American army
hessians
German troops hired from their princes by King George III to aid in suppressing the colonial rebellion; this hardened the American resolve of the colonists who resented the use of paid foreign fighters; many of these soldiers deserted the British and became respectable American citizens
Thomas Paine
radical and very influential writer of "Common Sense"
Thomas Jefferson
principal author of the Declaration of Independence and lawyer from Virginia
Paul Revere
silversmith from Boston who rode on horseback to warn the colonists of the Redcoat march to Lexington and Concord; known as the midnight ride
John Locke
philosopher of the Enlightenment who inspired Thomas Jefferson with his ideas of natural rights of life, liberty, and property
loyalists
colonists who opposed the American revolution and remained loyal to the king; also called Tories
patriots
colonists who supported the American Revolution; also called Whigs
Ethan Allen
leader of the Green Mountain Boys who fought at Lake Champlain and at Fort Ticonderoga
Benedict Arnold
leader of the Connecticut militia who fought at Lake Champlain and Fort Ticonderoga; he was later a traitor and spy for Britain
Richard Henry Lee
delegate from Virginia who proposed a motion of independence during the Second Continental Congress
Gen. Charles Cornwallis
Commander of British troops in the South, best known for his defeat at the Battle of Yorktown
Gen. William Howe
British Commanding General at Bunker Hill; stayed in Philadelphia rather than help Burgoyne in the North
Gen. Horatio Gates
American general who surrounds Burgoyne in late 1777 at the Battle of Saratoga and forces Burgoyne to surrender
Gen. John Burgoyne
British general in the American Revolution who captured Fort Ticonderoga but lost the battle of Saratoga in 1777
Ben Franklin
American intellectual, inventor, and politician; he helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution
Comte de Rochambeau
French general who commanded French troops in the American Revolution, notably at Yorktown
Battle of Lexington
April 1775, first battle of the American revolution that ended in colonial victory
Battle of Concord
April 1775, battle in Concord, MA that ended in an unexpected colonial victory but gave the colonists hope of winning more battles
Valley Forge
place where Washington and the Continental Army retired for the winter of 1776; the soldiers are starving, freezing, and dying and many desert the army or do not reenlist
Battle of Bunker Hill
June 1775, fought on the outskirts of Boston, on Breed's Hill, the battle ended in the colonial militia's retreat, though it was a heavy cost to the British
Battle of Long Island
August 1776, battle for the control of New York; British troops overwhelmed the colonial militia and remained in control of New York City for most of the war
Battle of Trenton
December 1776, George Washington surprised and captured a garrison of sleeping Hessians, raising the moral of his crestfallen army and setting the stage for his victory at Princeton a week later
Battle of Brandywine
September 1777, British forces under William Howe defeated Americans under George Washington, thereby clearing the way for the British occupation of Philadelphia
Battle of Germantown
October 1777, American forces under George Washington unsuccessfully attempted to drive the British and General Howe out of Pennsylvania
Fort Ticonderoga
May 1775, battle in upstate NY where the Americans capture the British fort and gain gunpowder; they are led by Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen
Battle of Saratoga
October 1777, decisive colonial victory in upstate New York which helped secure French support for the colonial cause
Battle of Yorktown
October 1781, George Washington and the French besieged Cornwallis at this battle, while the French naval fleet prevented British reinforcements from coming ashore; Cornwallis surrendered and this was a heavy blow to the British war effort; the road to peace was beginning