46 terms

Chapter 18 APES Friedland

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Extinction
When the last member of a species dies
Inbreeding Depression
When individuals with similar genotypes, typically relatives, breed with each other and produce offspring that have an impaired ability to survive and reproduce
Endangered
Serious risk of extinction
Svalbard Global Seed Vault
Contains strong seed varieties in case of natural disasters
Extinct species
Existed as recently as the year 1500 but no longer today
Threatened species
Have a high risk of extinction in the future
Near-threatened species
Very likely to become threatened in the future
Least concern species
Wide and abundant
Native species
Species that live in their historical range
Alien species
Species that live outside their historical range
Invasive specieas
When an alien species spreads rapidly across large areas
Lacey Act
Prohibits the transport of illegally harvested game animals across state lines, 1900
CITES
Controls international trade of threatened plants and animals 1973
Red List
List of threatened species made by IUCN
Convention on Biological Diversity
1992, An international treaty to help protect biodiversity
Edge Habitat
Where two different communities come together, typically forming an abrupt transition,
Biosphere Reserves
Protected areas consisting of zones that vary in the amount of permissible human impact
Endangered Species Act
Has prevented or altered some construction projects to accommodate threatened or endangered species, 1973, on of the worlds toughest environmental laws.
Marine Mammal Protection Act
Prohibits the killing of all marine animals in the US and import and export of body parts, 1972
Dodo
hunted to extinction on the island of Mauritius
Silver Carp (asian carp)
invasive fish brought in to eat excess algae in fish farms and waste treatment holding ponds.
Zebra Mussel
native to the Black Sea, unintentionally introduced into the Great Lakes from the ballast water of ships
Brown Headed Cowbird
bird that lays its eggs in the nests of other birds
captive breeding
animals that are bred in captivity with the intention of releasing their young back into the wild
passenger pigeon
last of its kind, Martha, died in the Cincinnati Zoo in 1914
Kudzu
introduced plant used for asian beverages, to control soil erosion (since it grows fast!)and a source of tree free paper and herbal remedies. Problem is that it is invasive
Zebra Mussel
accidentally introduced in the ballast water from ships. Invasive animal
Japanese Beetle
deliberately introduced to control aphids, became invasive since no natural predators
water hyacinth
deliberately introduced for water gardens, invasive
purple loosestrife
deliberately introduced for water gardens, purple flower, invasive
african honey bee
deliberately introduced insect, agressive
European Starling
deliberately introduced bird, was in Shakespeares plays
illegal wildlife trafficking
2nd larges black market commerce in the world
house sparrow
bird that was introduced to the US as a traveler on ships.
amphibians
great indicator species because they live in many different places and respond quickly to environmental change. They are easy to track and count. Suffering from Chytrid fungus.
Blue Whales
endangered species that can be hunted legally under the endangered species act for scientific purposes.
Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)
Governmental agency that enforces the Endangered Species Act
Habitat Corridors
stretches of land that link isolated nature reserves
lumber, fuelwood, hunting
List three economic services provided by forests
1995
Year that wolves were released into Yellowstone
Habitat destruction
greatest threat to most species (which letter in HIPPCO?)
inbreeding depression
when individuals that are closely related breed with each other
10 million
estimated number of species on earth
2 million
identified number of species on earth
native species
species that live in their historical range
Marine Mammal Protection Act 1972
environmental legislation that protects sea lions and other marine mammals
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