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Italian word for "resurgence"; used as a name for the Italian nationalist movement of the 1800s.

Young Italy movement

Society of Italian nationalists formed in 1831.


Customs union of German states begun in 1834.

Treaty of Prague

Agreement that ended the Seven Week's War between Prussia and Austria.


Title of the German emperor.


Upper house of the German legislature.


The Lower house of the German legislature.


Bismarck's anti-Catholic "culture struggle".

Social Democratic Party

German socialist party formed in 1869.


Program to force non-Russian people to adopt the Russian language, Orthodox religion, and Russian customs.


Nationalist movement that pressed for the political and cultural unity of all Slavs under Russian leadership.

Emancipation Edict

1861 proclamation that freed all Russian serfs.

People's Will

Russian terrorist group in the late 1800s.


Bombings, kidnappings, and other acts of violence by political groups or governments, sometimes against innocent people, to force governments to grant their demands.


Government-sponsored riots that resulted in the massacre of Jews in Russia.

Social Democratic Labor Party

Russian socialist party formed in 1898.


Russian parliament formed in 1905.

Treaty of San Stefano

1878 agreement in which the Ottoman Empire granted independence to Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.

Balkan League

Alliance between Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, and Montenegro against the Ottoman Empore.


Glorification of armed strength.


Organized a nation's army and other resources for combat.

Triple Alliance

1881 alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy

Triple Entente

1907 alliance between France, Russia, and Great Britain

Balkan "powder keg"

Description of the international rivalries and instability focused on the Balkans before World War I.


Warring nations.

Central Powers

World War I alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire.

Allied Powers

World War I alliance of Great Britain, France, Russia, and their partners, later including the United States.


German submarines used in World War I.


Ideas, facts or rumors spread deliberately to further one's cause or to damage an opposing cause.

war of attrition

Slow wearing-down manner of warfare in which each side tries to outlast the other.


War materials supplied by a neutral to a belligerent nation.


Brutal crimes of war, often committed against defenseless civilians.

Fourteen Points

President Woodrow Wilson's plan for a just world based on the Allies' claims to end World War I.


Agreement to stop fighting.

Paris Peace Conference

Meeting of victorious nations to write terms for the peace following World War I.


Payment for war damages.

League of Nations

World organization formed after World War I to maintain peace.

Treaty of Versailles

Treaty between Germany and the Allied Powers at the end of World War I.

World Court

The Permanent Court of International Justice, located at The Hague in the Netherlands.

economic sanctions

Refusal to trade with an offending nation.


Area, usually a former colony, to be administered by the government of another nation.

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