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41 terms

Unit 4: World War I and the Russian Revolution

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risorgimento
Italian word for "resurgence"; used as a name for the Italian nationalist movement of the 1800s.
Young Italy movement
Society of Italian nationalists formed in 1831.
Zollverein
Customs union of German states begun in 1834.
Treaty of Prague
Agreement that ended the Seven Week's War between Prussia and Austria.
kaiser
Title of the German emperor.
Bundesrat
Upper house of the German legislature.
Reichstag
The Lower house of the German legislature.
Kulturkampf
Bismarck's anti-Catholic "culture struggle".
Social Democratic Party
German socialist party formed in 1869.
Russification
Program to force non-Russian people to adopt the Russian language, Orthodox religion, and Russian customs.
Pan-Slavism
Nationalist movement that pressed for the political and cultural unity of all Slavs under Russian leadership.
Emancipation Edict
1861 proclamation that freed all Russian serfs.
People's Will
Russian terrorist group in the late 1800s.
terrorism
Bombings, kidnappings, and other acts of violence by political groups or governments, sometimes against innocent people, to force governments to grant their demands.
pogroms
Government-sponsored riots that resulted in the massacre of Jews in Russia.
Social Democratic Labor Party
Russian socialist party formed in 1898.
Duma
Russian parliament formed in 1905.
Treaty of San Stefano
1878 agreement in which the Ottoman Empire granted independence to Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
Balkan League
Alliance between Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, and Montenegro against the Ottoman Empore.
militarism
Glorification of armed strength.
mobilized
Organized a nation's army and other resources for combat.
Triple Alliance
1881 alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
Triple Entente
1907 alliance between France, Russia, and Great Britain
Balkan "powder keg"
Description of the international rivalries and instability focused on the Balkans before World War I.
belligerents
Warring nations.
Central Powers
World War I alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire.
Allied Powers
World War I alliance of Great Britain, France, Russia, and their partners, later including the United States.
U-boats
German submarines used in World War I.
propaganda
Ideas, facts or rumors spread deliberately to further one's cause or to damage an opposing cause.
war of attrition
Slow wearing-down manner of warfare in which each side tries to outlast the other.
contraband
War materials supplied by a neutral to a belligerent nation.
atrocities
Brutal crimes of war, often committed against defenseless civilians.
Fourteen Points
President Woodrow Wilson's plan for a just world based on the Allies' claims to end World War I.
armistice
Agreement to stop fighting.
Paris Peace Conference
Meeting of victorious nations to write terms for the peace following World War I.
reparations
Payment for war damages.
League of Nations
World organization formed after World War I to maintain peace.
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty between Germany and the Allied Powers at the end of World War I.
World Court
The Permanent Court of International Justice, located at The Hague in the Netherlands.
economic sanctions
Refusal to trade with an offending nation.
mandate
Area, usually a former colony, to be administered by the government of another nation.