63 terms

Chapters 11 and 12

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Terms in this set (...)

tragedy of the commons
a collective goods dilemma that is created when common environmental assets are depleted or degraded through the failure of states to cooperate effectively
enclosure
the splitting of a common area or good into privately owned pieces, giving individual owners an incentive to manage resources responsibly
global commons
the shared parts of the earth, such as the oceans and outer space
Earth Day
first organized by environmental activists in 1970-interest in the environment has grown steadily since then
sustainable development
economic growth that does not deplete resources and destroy ecosystems so quickly that the basis of that economic growth is itself undermined
1992 Earth Summit
established the Commission on Sustainable Development-monitors states' compliance to agreements previously made-lacks powers of enforcement
global warming
a slow, long-term rise in the average world temperature caused by the emission of greenhouse gases produced by burning fossil fuels-oil, coal, and natural gases
UN Environment Program (UNEP)
a program that monitors environmental conditions and, among other activities, works with the World Meteorological Organization to measure changes in global climate
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
issued a report in 2007 from scientists around the world, approved by more than 100 countries, calling global warming "unequivocal" and expressing "very high confidence" that humans are the main cause
fossil fuels
oil, coal, and natural gas create an emission of gases when burned, causing global warming
1992 Framework Convention on Climate Change
adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit-set a nonbinding goal to limit greenhouse emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000-treaty did not commit the signatory states to meet targets levels of greenhouse emissions by a certain date
Kyoto Protocol
the main international treaty on global warming-entered into effect in 2005 and mandates cuts in carbon emissions in 2008-2012-almost all the world's major countries, except the US, are participants
ozone depletion
certain chemicals, like CFCs, expelled by industrial economies float to the top of the atmosphere and interact with ozone in a way that breaks it down
Montreal Protocol (1987)
an agreement on protection of the ozone layer in which states pledged to reduce and then eliminate use of CFCs-most successful environmental treaty to date
biodiversity
the tremendous diversity of plant and animal species making up the earth's ecosystems
loss of habitat
most important cause in species extinction-destruction of rain forests, pollution of lakes and streams, and loss of agricultural lands to urban sprawl
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) 1973
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International Whaling Commission
an IGO that sets quotas for hunting certain whale species; states' participation is voluntary
US Clean Air Act
successfully reduced air pollution in US cities
rain forests
home to as many as half of the world's total species-replenishes oxygen and reduces carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, slowing down global warming-benefit all the world's states-a collective good
debt-for-nature swaps
poor countries burdened by large foreign debts have worked out agreements with environmentalists and bankers from rich countries in which a debt is canceled in exchange for the state's agreement to preserve rain forests
high seas
the portion of the oceans considered common territory, not under any kind of exclusive state jurisdiction
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
a world treaty, 1982, governing use of the oceans-established rules on territorial waters and a 200 mile exclusive economic zone
exclusive economic zone (EEZ)
200 mile zone established in the UNCLOS treaty for economic activities, such as fishing and mining-200 mile limit placed a substantial share of the economically profitable ocean resources in the control of about a dozen states
Antarctic Treaty of 1959
forbids military activity as well as the presence of nuclear weapons or the dumping of nuclear waste in Antarctica
acid rain
rain caused by air pollution that damages trees and often crosses borders
Chernobyl
a city in Ukraine that was the site of a 1986 meltdown at a Soviet nuclear power plant
Aral Sea
formerly the world's fourth largest inland sea and contained within the Soviet Union-has now shrunk in half, its huge fisheries destroyed, after a Soviet-era mega irrigation project to grown cotton in the desert diverted rivers and polluted them with pesticides
1973 oil shock
during an Arab-Israeli war, the oil-producing Arab states of the region decided to punish the US for supporting Israel-cut off their oil exports to the US- supply disruption sent world oil prices skyrocketting
Caspian Sea
world's largest inland body of water-depending on whether it is defined as a sea or a lake effects who has the right to mine the natural resources found within the center
Malthusian
experts and officials who warn against world overpopulation
demographic transition
the pattern of falling death rates, followed by falling birthrates, that generally accompanies industrialization and economic development
China's one child policy
restrictions placed on families in China in an attempt to prevent overpopulation
pronatalist policies
a government policy that encourages or forces childbearing, and outlaws or limits access to contraception
infant mortality rate
the proportion of babies who die within their first year of life
Green Revolution
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less developed countries/ underdeveloped countries/ developing countries
states in the global South, the poorest regions of the world
UN Millennium Development Goals
UN targets for basic needs measures such as reducing poverty and hunger, adopted in 2000 with a target date of 2015
basic human needs
fundamental needs of people for adequate food, shelter, health care, sanitation, and education-meeting such needs may be thought of as both a moral imperative and a form of investment in "human capital" essential for economic growth
UNICEF methods to save children
1. growth monitoring to prevent malnutrition
2. oral re-hydration therapy-stops diarrhea in children before they die of dehydration
3. immunization against 6 common deadly diseases
4. promotion of breast feeding instead of formula
malnutrition
a lack of needed foods including protein and vitamins; about 10 million children die from deficiency related causes
subsistence farming
rural communities growing food mainly for their own consumption rather than for sale in local or world markets
cash crops
an agricultural good produced as a commodity for export to world markets
urbanization
a shift of population from the countryside to the cities that typically accompanies economic development and is augmented by displacement of peasants from subsistence farming
land reform
policies that aim to break up large land holdings and redistribute land to poor peasants for use in subsistence farming
refugees
people fleeing their countries to find refuge from war, natural disaster, or political persecution-international law distinguishes them from migrants
migrants
people who emigrate from the old state, generally poor states of the South, and immigrate to new states in the North-in search of better economic opportunities, a better professional environment, or better access to their family, culture, or religion
remittances
money sent home by migrant workers to individuals, usually relatives, in their country of origin
trafficking in humans
people brought across international borders against their will-includes both sex slaves and labor slaves
capitalist view of the North-South gap
stresses overall efficiency in maximizing economic growth- South is simply lagging behind the North- more wealth creation in the North and the South is good
socialist view of the North-South gap
creation of wealth in the North most often comes at the expense of the South
welfare state
capitalist states redistribute some of its wealth downward by providing education, certain health benefits, welfare for the poor, etc.
capital accumulation
the creation of standing wealth such as buildings, roads, and factories-basis of economic development
economic surplus
a surplus created by investing money in productive capital rather than using it for consumption
world-system
a view of the world in terms of regional class divisions, with industrialized countries as the core, poorest countries as the periphery, and newly industrializing countries as the semiperiphery
resource curse
the difficulties faced by resource-rich developing countries, including dependence on exporting one or a few commodities whose prices fluctuate, as well as potentials for corruption and inequality
imperialism
the acquisition of colonies by conquest or otherwise
colonialism
attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory
decolonization
began with the British colonists in the US, who declared independence in 1776
post colonial dependency
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neocolonialism
the continuation, in a former colony, of colonial exploitation without formal political control
dependency theory
a Marxist-oriented theory that explains the lack of capital accumulation in the third world as a result of the interplay between domestic class relations and the forces of foreign capital
enclave economy
a historically important form of dependency in which foreign capital is invested in a third world country to extract a particular raw material in a particular place-usually a mine, oil well, or plantation