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Terms in this set (109)
or chassis, the case on the desktop that contains and protects the motherboard, hard disk drive, memory, and other electronic components
or system board, main circuit board of the computer
small piece of semiconducting material, usually silicon, on which integrated circuits are etched.
contains many microscopic pathways capable of carrying electrical current
can act as an electronic switch that opens or closes the circuit for electrical charges
or central processing unit, interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer
single chip with two or more separate processor cores
component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer
arithmetic logic unit
another component of the processor, performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations.
include basic calculations such as addition and subtraction, multiplication, and division.
comparing one data item with another to determine whether the first item is greater than, equal to, or less than the other.
process of obtaining a program or an application instruction or data item from memory
process of translating the instruction into signals the computer can execute
process of carrying out the commands
writing the result to memory
processor contains small, high-speed storage locations that temporarily hold data and instructions
small quartz crystal circuit to control timing of all computer operations
processors can execute more than one instruction per clock cycle
pace of the system clock. measured by the number of ticks per second
one cycle per second
one billion ticks of the system per second
leading manufacturers of personal computer processor chips are
Intel and AMD
small ceramic or metal component with fins on its surface that absorbs and disperses head produced by electrical components, such as a processor
liquid cooling technology
uses a continuous flow of fluids such as water and glycol in a process that transfers the heated fluid away from the processor to a radiator-type grill, which cools the liquid, and then returns the cooled fluid to the processor
rests below a laptop and protects the computer from overheating and also the user's lap from excessive heat.
home and business users choose cloud computing for what reasons
accessibility, cost savings, space savings, scalability
data and/or applications are available worldwide from any computer or device with an Internet connection
the expense of software and high-end hardware, such as fast processors and high-capacity memory and storage devices, sifts away from the user
floor space required for servers, storage devices, and other hardware shifts away from the user
provides the flexibility to increase or decrease computing requirements as needed
front end of cloud computing
includes the hardware and software with which a user interacts to access the cloud
back end of cloud computing
consists of the servers and storage devices that manage and store the resources accessed by users
infrastructure as a service
uses software to emulate hardware capabilities, enabling companies to scale, or adjust up and down, storage, processing power, or bandwidth
storage as service
cloud storage providers offer file management services such as storing files online, system backup, and archiving earlier versions of files
Desktop as service
some companies specify the applications, security settings, and computing resources available to employees on their desktop computers. Also known as virtual desktop because the desktop and its apps appear to be installed on the user's own computer
software as a service
describes a computing environment where an Internet server hosts and deploys applications.
Data as a service
allows users and applications to access a company's data. make data available for developers to incorporate in applications or to use when making business decisions and plans.
applications that incorporate data from multiple providers into a new application
platform as a service
allows developers to create, test, and run their solutions on a cloud platform without having to purchase or configure the underlying hardware and software
human speech because it uses continuous (wave form) signals that vary in strength and quality
number system that has just two unique digits, 0 and 1, called bits
short for binary digit, is the smallest unit of data the computer can process
By itself, a bit is not very informative
when 8 bits are grouped together as a unit. provides enough different combinations of 0's and 1's to represent 256 different characters
letters and numberz
American standard code for information interchange, most widely used coding scheme to represent a set of characters
consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processing the data
memory stores three basic categories of items
1) the operating system and other programs that control or maintain the computer and its devices
2) Applications that carry out a specific task, such as word processing
3) the data being processed by the applications and the resulting info
unique number that identifies the location of a byte in memory
approx. 1 billion bytes
approx. 1 trillion bytes
when the computer's power is turned off, ___ ____ loses its contents
does not lose its contents when power is removed from the computer
Volatile memory is temporary and nonvolatile memory is permanent
Most common type of volatile memory
examples of nonvolatile memory
ROM, flash memory
random access memory, also called main memory, consists of memory chips that can be read from and written to by the processor and other devices
two types of RAM
dynamic and static
chips must be reenergized constantly or they lose their contents.
chips are faster and more reliable than any variation of DRAM chips. do not have to be reenergized as often. more expensive.
small circuit board where RAM chips reside
on the motherboard that hold memory modules.
Two types of memory modules
SIMMs and DIMMs
single inline memory module; has pins on opposite sides of the circuit board that connect together to form a single set of contacts
dual inline memory module; pins on opposite sides of the circuit board do not connect, and thus, form two sets of contacts.
temporary storage area
two common types of cache
memory and disk
helps speed the processes of the computer because it stores frequently used instructions and data.
three types of memory cache
L1 cache, L2 cache, L3 cache
built directly on the processor chip. Very small capacity
slightly slower than L1 but has a much larger capacity
cache on the motherboard that is separate from the processor chip. Exists only on computers that use L2 advanced transfer cache
When the processor needs an instruction or data, it searches memory in this order
L1 cache, L2 cache, L3 (if exists), RAM
read-only memory (ROM)
memory chips storing permanent data and instructions
contain permanently written data, instructions, or info such as a computer or mobile device's start-up instruction.
nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and rewritten
expansion card or adapter board; circuit board that enhances the functions of a component of a desktop or server system unit and/or provides connections to peripheral devices.
a socket on a desktop or server motherboard that can hold an adapter card.
a dongle that plugs into a USB port, enhances functions of a mobile computer and/or provides connections to peripheral devices.
allows you to insert and remove a device while the computer is running
allows the various devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other
used to transfer actual data
transfer info about where the data should reside in memory
determines the number of bits that the computer can transmit at one time
front side bus: part of the motherboard and connects the processor to main memory
connects the processor to cache
allows the processor to communicate with peripheral devices
bracelet designed to protect electronics from an electrostatic discharge by preventing a buildup of static electricity on a user
a slate tablet typically does not include a physical keyboard
on a personal computer, all functions of the processor usually are on a single chip
a dual-core processor doubles the processing speed of a single-core processor
in general, multi-core processors are less energy efficient than separate multiple processors.
The speed of the system clock affects the speed of peripheral devices, such as the printer or disk drive.
today's personal computer processors do not require additional cooling
in the binary system, the digit 1 represents the electronic state of on (presence of an electronic charge)
Common sizes for memory are in the bit and byte range
the processor interprets and executes a program or application's instructions while the program or application is in nonvolatile memory.
you can change a removable flash memory device without having to open the system unit or restart the computer
as with processors, manufacturers state the clock speed for a bus in hertz.
the power supply converts the wall outlet DC power into AC power
the ___ is the main circuit board of the computer
A ___ is a single chip with two or more separate processor cores.
___ include basic calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division
In the machine cycle the ___ operation obtains a program or application instruction or data item from memory
A processor contains small, high-speed storage locations, called ___, that temporarily hold data and instructions.
A __ is a small ceramic or metal component with fins on its surface that absorbs and disperses head produced by electrical components, such as a processor.
An aspect of cloud computing that describes a computing environment where an Internet server hosts and deploys applications is known as __
software as a server
A ___ is a circuit board that enhances the functions of a component of a desktop or server system unit and/or provides connections to peripheral devices.
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