Terms in this set (318)

Freshwater Ecosystems
Flora and fauna displaced (invasives)
Groundwater (aquifers)
Contamination
Wastewater and water treatment facilities
Contamination and corrosion
Sewers and pipelines
Corrosion

When fresh water is withdrawn at a faster rate than it can be replenished, a draw down of the water table occurs with a a resulting decrease in the overall hydrostatic pressure. When this happens near an ocean coastal area, salt water from the ocean intrudes into the fresh water aquifer as shown in the diagram. The result is that fresh water supplies become contaminate with salt water as is happening to communities along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts.

Saltwater intrusion has happened in North Carolina as well. Some of the more significant occurrences have happened in Cape Hatteras Island, Pitt County, Pender County, New Hanover County, and Brunswick County.

In any case salt water intrusion has been approached first by regulating withdrawals from groundwater within the Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area, a high use area established in 2001 as having issues with salty groundwater. Shifting from groundwater to surface water has also helped with fresh groundwater recover. Currently, legislation associated with this 15 county area 15A NCAC 2E .0501 states as its goal to protect groundwater resource usage at rates which do not exceed the aquifers' recharge rates. The regulations hope to achieve sustainable water use by close to 2018. Intense monitoring in this at risk area is essential and an upcoming status report by the Division of Water Resources to the Environmental Management Commission on whether or not the legislation requiring regulation of withdrawals is meeting the desired reduction in saltwater intrusion.
Brunswick nuclear power plant
6 meters above sea level
Sunny Point military terminal
Minor impacts
Wastewater and Water treatment facilities
Southside Wastewater facility and Sweeney Water Treatment Facility
Sewers, pumping stations, collections stations
Transportation and Port of Wilmington

The Brusnwick County nuclear power plant is currently six meters above sea level, however, if predictions are correct, then by the end of the century this could lowered to four or five meters. If a storm surge similar to hurricane Hazel were to make landfall in Brusnwick County, then the plant would only be one meter above the oceans surface
The risks associated with a one-meter sea level rise on Sunny Point military terminal are minor, but flooding could disrupt terminal operations if sea levels continue to increase into 22nd century
. The Southside wastewater treatment facility and the Sweeney water treatment facility in Wilmington will be impacted by a 40-centimeter increase in sea level. The impacts will include flooding of pump stations, sewer lines, and collection systems. Severe storms or a one-meter increase in sea levels could completely inundate those facilities and the associated infrastructure (Environmental Protection Agency, 2013). Flooding and damage to the wastewater and water treatment facilities in Wilmington will decrease treatment efficiency, increase the risks of bypasses, and possibly promote saltwater intrusion into treatment mechanisms. The stability of the treatment systems will be compromised requiring higher maintenance and operating costs
Author argues that the natural world (or "material world) acts within the same realm as the human social world; i.e., that one does not exist without the other.
Therefore, any solutions to environmental problems must stem from human society dealing with human-caused actions and changing non-environmentally friendly behaviors.
e.g Littering - Env. scientists (impact), env. Sociologist (why)

Author argues that the natural world (or "material world) acts within the same realm as the human social world; i.e., that one does not exist without the other.
Therefore, any solutions to environmental problems must stem from human society dealing with human-caused actions and changing non-environmentally friendly behaviors.
Author specifically mentions social science and the branch of soc sci called "environmental sociology". This is really the same thing "Human-dimensions of Environmental Science" - what Dr. Jeff Hill teaches in our department.
An example of this is a topic like littering in national parks. Traditional environmental scientists will look the impact of the problem, litter and what it does to the environment (i.e., soil contamination, impacts on wildlife eating the trash). An environmental sociologist may look at why that behavior occurs and how we could use different strategies such as normative theory to alter this behavior and prevent littering in the park, benefiting the environment (and human enjoyment of the park) at the same time.

-really cant separate hese two domains, they interact and relate to each other
1784 Awareness of the effect of volcanism on climate
Benjamin Franklin suggests that a great eruption of the Laki volcano in Iceland is responsible for the unusually severe winter that follows, thus showing an awareness of the effect of volcanism on global climate.

1800-1870 Atmospheric CO2 levels are at 280 ppm
The level of carbon dioxide gas (CO2) in the atmosphere, as later measured in ancient ice, is about 280 parts per million.

The use of fossil fuels and land clearing associated with the Industrial Revolution, population growth, and rising affluence will produce a steady rise in CO2 concentrations over the next two centuries.

1824 Early recognition of Earth's atmosphere in temperature

Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, French mathematician and natural philosopher, is the first to propose that the Earth's atmosphere acts to raise the planet's temperature.

1837 Early recognition of climate change

Louis Agassiz studies the glaciers of Switzerland and notes that the effects of glaciation can be seen in places where glaciers are no longer present.

He concludes that an Ice Age occurred at some time in the past, during which huge glaciers must have covered much of the Earth's surface.

This is an early recognition of the phenomenon of climate change.

1859 Introduction to climate science

John Tyndall, a self-taught Irish scientist, suggests that changes in concentrations of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and any other radioactive ingredient could bring about climate change.

1887 Study of effect of human activity on climate

Geographer and climatologist Eduard Bruckner makes pioneering studies of climate change and in particular of the effect of human activity on climate.

1896 Role of carbon dioxide as a GHG established

Svante August Arrhenius of Sweden presents a paper to the Stockholm Physical Society entitled, On the Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air upon the Temperature of the Ground.

This establishes the role of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas.

1897 Ice ages tied to CO2 feedbacks
American geologist Thomas C. Chamberlin develops one of the first theories of climate change that emphasizes carbon dioxide as a major regulator of Earth's temperature, thus anticipating modern global warming.

Chamberlin hypothesized that that ice ages might follow a self-oscillating cycle driven by feedbacks involving CO2.

1930s Milankovitch cycles described
Serbian astrophysicist Milutin Milankovitch develops a mathematical theory of climate based on the seasonal and latitudinal variations of solar radiation received by the Earth.

Now known as the Milankovitch Theory, it states that as the Earth travels through space around the sun, cyclical variations in three elements of Earth-sun geometry combine to produce variations in the amount of solar energy that reaches Earth:

eccentricity, obliquity, and precession of the Earth's orbit.

1938 Fossil fuels implicated in climate change
George.S. Callendar publishes The Artificial Production of Carbon Dioxide and Its Influence on Climate, in which he directly implicates fossil fuel combustion as an agent of climate change.

He is largely ignored or derided for this claim, but history proves him to be prophetic

1957 Evidence of CO2 increase due to fossil fuels
Roger Revelle of the United States and Hans Suess of Austria demonstrate that carbon dioxide has increased in the atmosphere as a result of the use of fossil fuels.

Revelle concludes that "Human beings are now carrying out a large scale geophysical experiment of a kind that could not have happened in the past nor be reproduced in the future."

1958 Keeling curve shows rise in CO2 levels
Oceanographer Charles Keeling begins his study of Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, as measured at Mauna Loa, Hawaii and other locations.

He definitively confirms the rise of atmospheric CO2, by means of a data set now known as the Keeling curve, or the Mauna Loa Curve.

These data showed unequivocally that CO2 levels had been rising since the middle of the 20th C.

1958 Keeling curve shows rise in CO2 levels
Oceanographer Charles Keeling begins his study of Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, as measured at Mauna Loa, Hawaii and other locations.

He definitively confirms the rise of atmospheric CO2, by means of a data set now known as the Keeling curve, or the Mauna Loa Curve.

These data showed unequivocally that CO2 levels had been rising since the middle of the 20th C.

1967 Early plausible climate model

Meteorologists Syukuro ("Suki") Manabe and Richard Wetherald develop a climate model that predicts that global temperature would rise roughly 2 °C (around 3-4 °F) for a doubling of CO2 concentrations.

This is the first time a greenhouse warming computation includes enough of the essential factors to seem plausible to many experts.

late 1960s Global atmospheric circulation models

The advent of more powerful digital electronic computers make it possible to model the global general atmospheric circulation for the first time.

By the 1970s, general circulation models (GCMs) are the central tool of climate scientists such as Syukuro Manabe and Kirk Bryan, and they will play a key role in describing climate change.
Adopt energy-saving habits - Keep thermostat relatively low in winter and ease up on the air conditioning in summer. Clean or replace dirty air conditioner filters as recommended to keep the A/C operating at peak efficiency. - Unplug your electronics when not in use. To make it easier, use a power strip. Even when turned off, items like your television, computer, and cellphone charger still sip power. - Dry your clothes outside whenever possible. - Make minimal use of power equipment when landscaping. - Choose green electricity. Many utilities give you the option to purchase electricity generated by wind and solar power for a small rate surcharge. - Purchase carbon offsets to make up for the energy use you can't eliminate.
Reduce your Food Footprint - Eat more local, organic, in-season foods. - Plant a garden-it doesn't get more local than that. - Shop at your local farmer's market or natural foods store. Look for local, in-season foods that haven't traveled long distances to reach you. - Choose foods with less packaging to reduce waste. - Eat lower on the food chain-going meatless for just one meal a week can make a difference. Globally, it has been estimated that 18% of all greenhouse gas emissions are associated with meat consumption.
Adopt water-saving habits - Take shorter, less frequent showers-this not only saves water, but the energy needed to heat it - Don't use the garbage disposal. Compost instead. - Run the dishwasher and the laundry machine only when full. - Wash cars rarely, or better yet, take them to a carwash. Commercial carwashes use less water per wash than home washers; they are required to drain water into the sewage system - Avoid hosing down or power-washing your deck, walkways, or driveway. - Regularly look for and fix leaks. Reduce your Goods and Services Footprint - Buy less! Replace items only when you really need to. - Recycle all your paper, glass, aluminum, and plastic. Don't forget electronics! - Compost food waste for the garden. - Buy recycled products, particularly those labeled "post-consumer waste."
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