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Terms in this set (74)
The fluid outside the cell, the _____________________ fluid, contains substances such as amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, hormones, neurotransmitters, and salts
The _____________________ ER serves as a means for transport within the cell and is made up of many channels and serves to store and deliver the proteins made by the [attached] ribosomes.
The _____________________ ER functions in the storage of enzymes and minerals and the folding of proteins as well as in the detoxification of chemicals and the metabolism of fats.
The _____________________ _____________________ modifies and packages proteins destined for use in the cell or for export from the cell.
Plant cells can be distinguished from other cells by the facts that they are surrounded by a _____________ _____________ and contain chloroplasts.
_____________________ are compartments in the cytoplasm that act as places for secretion, excretion, and storage.
_____________________ cells are nonreproductive cells.
In somatic cells, the new cells are identical copies of the parent cell. This type of cell division is referred to as _____________________. -- this type of division is useful in the growth and repair of our bodies.
_____________________ is a type of division that takes place in the production of gametes.
In meiosis, the _____________________ is created by the union of a sperm and egg and contains a full set of chromosomes, half from each parent.
four daughter cells (each with half the normal number of chromosomes -- so when cells combine, have half from each parent)
The product of meiosis is what?
_____________________ tissue contains cartilage, blood, fat, and bone.
The study of scientific classification:
kingdoms, phylum, class, order, genus, species
Unit of classification:
animal, plant, monera, bacteria, fungi
The 5 Kingdoms:
_____________________ transport does not require energy and makes use of diffusion and filtration.
When the solute is more concentrated outside the cell than inside it, the solution is _____________________. The result is _____________________ of the cell.
When the solute concentration outside the cell is lower than that inside the cell, the solution is _____________________. The result is _____________________ of the cell.
_____________________ is the movement of water and solutes through the membrane by hydrostatic pressure.
autotrophs (also referred to as producers)
_____________________ are organisms that produce their own food from inorganic substances.
Example of an autotroph:
heterotrophs (also referred to as consumers)
_____________________ obtain their food by consuming organic substances (either plants or animals)
herbivores (plant eaters); omnivores (plant and meat eaters)
Primary consumers include _____________________ and _____________________.
carnivores; omnivores that eat herbivores
Secondary consumers include _____________________ and _____________________ ...
carnivores that eat other carnivores or omnivores
Tertiary consumers include: ....
_____________________ are the most important trophic level in the ecosystem.
_____________________ factors include the living parts of the ecosystem [that affect an ecosystem].
_____________________ factors are nonliving influences such as temperature, humidity, or soil composition.
Separate species living together:
One species benefits and one species is harmed:
One species benefits and one is unaffected:
Both species benefit:
A _____________________ is the entire portion of our planet that is inhabited by living things in a variety of ecosystems and communities.
Little precipitation, more arid than all of the other biomes:
tropical rain forests
High humidity, abundant rain, known for biodiversity, trees grow very tall and there is a great competition for light, little light reaches the forest floor
Temperate, midlatitude regions, support the growth of large trees such as oaks and maples
coniferous forests (taigas)
Found at high and cool elevations where seasons consist of short summers and long cold winters, characterized by pine and firs which do not shed their leaves in cold months
Very cold temperatures and high altitude, growth of shrubs and bushes but no trees
A ---> ____________
G --> _____________
In RNA A --> __________
The _____________________ variable is changed by the experimenter.
The independent variable is plotted on the _____ axis and the dependent on the _____ axis.
The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder all contribute to _____________________.
In chemical digestion, the nutrient carbohydrate's end product is _____________________.
The circulatory system is made up of the _____________________ system and the _____________________ system.
The atria _____________________ blood and the ventricles _____________________ blood.
Arteries transport blood _____________________ from the heart. Veins transport blood _____________________ the heart.
_____________________ neurons transmit impulses from sense organs and receptors to the spinal cord.
_____________________ make up the brain and spinal cord; transmits impulses between other neurons; part of reflex arc
_____________________ neurons carry impulses from interneurons to skeletal and visceral muscles and glands.
The _____________________ nervous system includes the nerves and sense receptors. It is responsible for transmitting information to and from the CNS.
The _____________________ nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord and is responsible for processing information.
The PNS is further divided into two branches: _____________________ and _____________________.
The _____________________ branch is concerned with the external environment.
The _____________________ branch is concerned with the internal environment
The _____________________ is the site of complex and high-level thinking. Conscious and voluntary actions are controlled here, as are other functions such as speech, vision, hearing, and memory.
The _____________________ is responsible for muscular coordination and balance.
medulla (or brainstem)
The _____________________ controls basic homeostatic functions such as body temperature, blood pressure, and breathing.
An important function of the endocrine system is to maintain _____________________ by means of _____________________ from the endocrine glands.
_____________________ glands secrete hormones directly into the blood stream.
The _____________________ gland is the master gland.
The _____________________ gland regulates metabolism.
The _____________________ gland regulates calcium metabolism.
isles of langerhans
The _____________________ gland controls the storage of sugar in liver and blood level of sugar.
The _____________________ bends or moves a limb away from anatomical. The _____________________ returns the limb to the anatomical position.
The kidneys are the principal _____________________ organs of the body.
In addition to the kidneys, the sweat glands, lungs, and liver function in _____________________.
zygote; haploid; diploid
Sexual reproduction starts with the fusion of two gametes (sperm and egg) to form a _____________________. Each gamete is _____________________, meaning it contains half the normal complement of chromosomes. The zygote, since it contains the full complement of chromosomes is called _____________________.
The _____________________ allows light to enter the eye.
The _____________________ regulates how much light is allowed to enter the pupil.
The _____________________ focuses light onto the retina.
_____________________ cells are sensitive to light, distinguish between black and white, and allow us to see at night.
_____________________ cells allow us to distinguish colors in the day.
When stimulated by light _____________________ cells transmit the information along the optic nerve to the brain.
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