41 terms

Chapter 6 and 7 Psychology Test

"The effectiveness of memory retrieval is directly related to the similarity of cues present when the memory was encoded to the cues present when the memory is retrieved." What concept does this statement describe?
Encoding specificity
The processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval are seen as part of the ____ model of memory.
Information processing
In the curve of forgetting developed by Ebbinghaus, the greatest amount of forgetting occurs ____.
within the first hour after learning new material
Evidence suggests that procedural memories are stored in the cerebellum, whereas short-term memories are stored in the prefrontal and temporal lobes of the cortex.
People with dementia typically have a memory problem known as:
Anterograde amnesia
Many middle-aged adults can vividly recall where they were and what they were doing that day that John F. Kennedy was assassinated, although they cannot remember what they were doing the day before he was assassinated. What is this an example of?
a flashbulb memory
Hypnotized people report more accurate AND inaccurate information than people who are not hypnotized.
Janie is taking an exam in her history class. On the exam there is a question that asks her to state and discuss the five major causes of the Trans-Caspian War. Janie remembers four of them. She knows there is a fifth and can almost remember it; she knows that it is something like Texas. Janie is walking down the stairs, when all of the sudden, she remembers that the fifth point is taxes, but it is too late. Janie was suffering from ____.
tip of the tongue effects
___ is defined as an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters information as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information form storage.
Iconic memory allows us to remember the beginnings of sentences long enough to have meaningful conversations.
If _____ is like losing a document in the computer because of a power loss, _____ is like pushing the "save" key and having the document disappear instead of being stored.
retrograde amnesia, anterograde amnesia
Malcolm, aged 35, is severely depressed. Because of this he is given electroconvulsive shock therapy. After treatment, he is sent home and does much better. However, his TV-watching behavior is strange. Malcolm thinks that last year's episodes of his favorite series are new. Malcolm is showing signs of ________
retrograde amnesia
Declarative memories are to ____ memories as procedural memories are to ____ memories.
explicit; implicit
Which model of memory is most similar in conceptualization to the way computers function?
Information-processing model
What is an example of what has been called infantile amnesia?
johnny, age 10, has no memory of a family vacation that occurred when he was 2 years old.
It is thought that long-term memory never can get filled up. The term used to describe the capacity of long-term memory is ____.
The three parts of the information-processing model of memory are _____.
sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
Iconic memory allows the eye to fuse the images from each tiny movement of the eye into a smooth, continuous pattern.
In this view, memories are literally "built" from the pieces stored at encoding. This view is called ____.
constructive processing
Moishe can remember only the first two items and the last two items on the grocery list that his wife just read to him over the phone. The other five items in between are gone. This is an example of the _____.
serial position effect
The only time selective attention is not working at its peak is ___.
during stage 4 sleep, and it is still functioning even then
When the sound of the word is the aspect that cannot be retrieved, leaving only the feeling of knowing the word without the ability to pronounce it, that is known as ____.
tip of the tongue effect
which of the following correlations of intelligence level would provide evidence for an environmental influence on intelligences?
adopted children and their adoptive parents who have high intelligences
Poor nutrition and medical care, poor living conditions (older, cheaper buildings often have lead paint on the walls), and a lack of intellectual support are thought to lead to ________.
familial retardation
People began measuring intelligence through tests roughly ________ years ago.
The practical aspects of communicating with others, or the social "niceties" of language, are referred to as ________.
Which of these is an element of the formal definition of mental retardation?
IQ below 70
People are termed gifted in terms of intelligence if their IQ is above ________.
According to Robert Sternberg, ________ is best described as "street smarts,"or the ability to use information to get along in life. People who have it know how to be tactful, how to manipulate situations to their advantage, and how to use inside information to increase their odds of success.
practical intelligence
In Kosslyn's "imaginary island" study, researchers found that it does take longer to view a mental image that ________.
is larger and covers more distance than one that is smaller and more compact
The research involving Alex the African gray parrot was based on the groundbreaking work of researcher ________.
Let's say we could teach a dolphin to understand the difference between the sentences "The parrot kissed the dolphin" and "The dolphin kissed the parrot." If this were demonstrated, it might mean the dolphin had an understanding of ________.
Which developmental psychologist theorized that concepts preceded and aided the development of language?
The system of rules that governs how we combine words to form grammatical sentences is called ________.
Which was NOT a finding of the Terman and Oden (1974) study of gifted kids?
they were clearly much more likely to be females
Language is based on universal sound units called ________.
Seventy percent of the students in a classroom are women and 30 percent are men. One student is described as ambitious, athletic, and assertive. Why are most people likely to think this description refers to a male student?
they are using the representativeness heuristic
Compared to formal concepts learned in science and math, natural concepts tend to be ________.
fuzzy with unclear boundaries
Psychological tests that yield relatively consistent results are said to be ________.
Fragile X, Down syndrome, and fetal alcohol syndrome are all forms of mental retardation or developmental delay.
Don tells Ray he wants to get a new sports car. Ray immediately understands why, because he is familiar with the common characteristics of sports cars and knows what makes them different from family cars. Ray is using mental categories called ________.