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USH Test Unit 4
Terms in this set (39)
Judiciary Act of 1789
written by George Washington, created a judicial court, Congress had authority to create lower federal courts, 13 district courts, 3 court of appeals, 6 member Supreme Court
granted by the "Necessary and Proper Clause," powers are authoritative actions that aren't specifically granted to Congress in the Constitution but are considered necessary to fulfill governmental duties
the power of the judicial branch to review an act or law passed by the executive or legislative branch to ensure its constitutionality or validity, result of Marbury vs. Madison, expands federal gov.
Republicans, wanted to limit government power, believed that if something is not clearly stated in the constitution, you can NOT do it
Federalists, interpreted the Constitution loosely, believed that if the Constitution did not state something, you CAN do it
Republicans in in favor of going to the war of 1812, Henry Clay, John Calhoun, Daniel Webster,
believed in having a strong central gov, wanted to put power in the hands of wealthy people, John Adams, Hamilton, Madison
wanted to give more power to the state + common people, Thomas Jefferson
Gibbons vs. Ogden
Aaron Ogden receives a contract from the state of NY that states that he has right to use the Hudson river for passenger traffic (similar to Fulton + Livingstone), Thomas Gibbons gets a license from the federal government and competes with Ogden, who sues Gibbons. Question = whether congress or the states has the power to regulate interstate commerce. Decision = Navigation is commerce (Congress has authority) GIBBONS WINS
Fletcher vs. Peck
Georgia Legislature made land grants to the Yazoo Land Company, the Georgia Legislature revoked the grant because it had been made under suspicious circumstances, owners of the land sued them, court had to decide whether the decision was unconstitutional. Decision = Court says that it was a legal contract, Court voids the state, establishing the judicial review of state laws.
Marbury vs. Madison
William Marbury = Federalist, the justice of peace, one of Adams "midnight appointments, Marbury's commission was left undelivered by John Marshall, (Secretary of state.) The next day, Madison (NEW secretary of state) was told not to deliver it by Jefferson, Marbury sues Madison
Decision = Supreme Court does not have the ability to give Marbury his commission, section of Judiciary Act was claimed unconstitutional, establishes Judicial Review
Federalist, Secretary of State until appointed Chief Justice by John Adams, created the Marshall Court, judged several important cases, increased Federal power at the expense of the states
Federalist, won the election against Thomas Pinckney for President, created his own Foreign Policy (Alien and Sedition Acts)
Republican, becomes vice president to Adams, becomes President in the Election of 1800
leading Federalist, seen as the visionary philosopher of the Federalist party, supports Jefferson's presidency (really weird)
President of the US, symbol of the new government, leader of the Washington Administration
first Chief Justice of the US
Federalist, Secretary of state before he was elected President after Thomas Jefferson
started the first textile mill in New England
Who was the symbol of the new government during this time?
What complicated the election of 1796?
Washington was gone, caused party conflict, Adams (Federalist) faced many challenges with Thomas Jefferson (Anti-Federalist), Federalists gain many seats in the House and Senate
What were the challenges that faced the Washington administration? Which was the greatest challenge?
Frontier Issues/NA Question, Treaty of Greenville, Whiskey Rebellion,
Whiskey Rebellion (GREATEST) = bad economy that needed to be dealt with
Explain Hamilton's financial plan (describe each of the five points)
Funding of the National debt, Assumption of State Debts, National Bank, Revenue, Industrial America, (see notes for explanation)
What Constitutional Principal did Hamilton use to justify the creation of the National Bank?
Describe Jays Treaty. What were its strengths? What were its weaknesses?
part of Washington's policies, British agree to vacate their frontier posts, STRENGTHS: two sides agree to commercial arrangement, put pressure on Spain to resolve diff. with the US, avoided war with Britain and the US
WEAKNESSES: no agreement was reached concerning, Maritime rights (impressment and seizure), Disputed the Canada + US border
What caused the Whiskey Rebellion? How was it resolved?
caused by Western Pennsylvania farmers refusing to pay Hamilton's tax on corn, Washington brings out 15,000 men and marches to Pittsburg, the rebellion is quickly resolved
What were Washington's points of emphasis in his "Farewell Address?"
warns the US to not get involved in outside forces (no political division) criticizes Republicans who believed that he had conspired against Federalist policy
What was unique about the election of 1800?
with Hamilton's support, the Federalists choose Jefferson to be President (Anti-Federalist)
What was France's reaction to Jay's treaty?
they were angry that the US allied with Britain at the expense of France (felt betrayed)
Describe the events surrounding the XYZ Affair.
French were angry about the Jay's Treaty, France decides to issue an order saying that they can seize US ships, we send 3 diplomats to France - they refuse to accept the US diplomat Charles Pinckney-- French demanded a bribe and a loan, US refuses
What did the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions state?
argue for the states' rights to judge the constitutionality of federal law
Compare and contrast the Federalists approach to foreign affairs and the republican's approach to foreign affairs.
federalists: George Washington wanted to remain neutral
What was Jefferson's attitude towards Native Americans?
first he saw them as "noble" people, then he them as expendable
What was Samuel Slater's contribution to the economy in the 1800s?
What was the major issue that made Jefferson hesitant to make the Louisiana Purchase?
(GREATEST) the constitution did not state that the president has the power to purchase land, Republicans were strict constructionists who resisted Federalist policies
What was the outcome of the Lewis and Clark expedition? Were they successful? Why or why not?
SUCCESSFUL!!! discovered the quickest land route from east to west, provided information about science, created new strategies for exploration, gained detailed info about NA tribes
Would John Marshall be described as being a strict or broad constructionist as it refers to the Constitution? Why?
Strict Constructionist in regards to the constitution even though he was a federalist
Who fought in the War of 1812? Why was it significant?
US, Canada/Native Americans/Britain, accomplished nothing (only victory was the Battle of New Orleans led by Jackson)
How were Federalists viewed after the War of 1812?
looked down upon, Federalist party had diminished greatly
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
US History Test (Unit 1)
Unit 2 USH Test
Ross Unit 2 study guide
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