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26 terms


smith multiple choice
The Industrial Revolution had its beginnings in
a. France.
b. Belgium.
c. Prussia.
d. the United States.
e. Great Britain.
Britain's emergence as the first industrial power was aided by all of the following except
a. a rapid population growth and a surplus pool of labor.
b. the agricultural revolution of the eighteenth century.
c. a ready supply of domestic and colonial markets.
d. Parliament's heavy and controlling involvement in private enterprise.
e. a developed financial system
The Industrial Revolution in Britain was largely inspired by
a. the urgent need to solve the great poverty in the eighteenth century.
b. the failure of the cottage industry.
c. entrepreneurs who sought and accepted the new profitable manufacturing methods. d. the industrialization of the Dutch and French.
e. the economic and technological needs engendered by the French Revolution.
The infrastructure advantages in Britain promoting rapid industrialization included all of the following except
a. canals.
b. roads.
c. bridges.
d. internal customs posts.
e. railroads.
The British industrial entrepreneur James Hargreaves
a. typified the university educated and mannered entrepreneur of the Industrial Revolution. b. invented the water frame spinning machine.
c. perfected the Compton's mule.
d. created the spinning jenny.
e. invented the steam engine.
The first step toward the Industrial Revolution in Britain occurred within its
a. cotton textile industry.
b. wool textile industry.
c. iron industry.
d. railroad industry.
e. mining industry.
Britain's cotton industry in the late eighteenth century
a. could not keep up with French textile production.
b. was inspired by the textile industry found in the United States.
c. declined due to the lack of technical innovation.
d. immediately declined with the success of the Industrial Revolution.
e. was responsible for the creation of the first modern factories.
The invention of the steam engine in Britain was initially triggered by
a. the textile industry's demand for new sources of power.
b. problems in the mining industry.
c. the railroad industry's call for a more efficient source of power.
d. the need for a more efficient mode of power for English ships.
e. c and d
Which of the following inventions proved vital to the industrialization of British cotton manufacturing?
a. Arkwright's spinning frame.
b. Hargreaves' spinning jenny.
c. Cartwright's power loom.
d. a and b
e. all of the above
James Watt was vital to the Industrial Revolution for his invention of
a. the spinning jenny.
b. the mule-powered Newcomen engine.
c. a rotary engine that could spin and weave cotton.
d. the first steam-powered locomotive.
e. the power loom.
The development of the steam engine during the Industrial Revolution
a. was the work of Edmund Cartwright.
b. proved disastrous to Britain's mining industry.
c. made factories dependent upon the location of rivers.
d. made Britain's cotton goods the cheapest and most popular in the world.
e. major large factories irrelevant.
The success of the steam engine in the Industrial Revolution made Britain dependent upon
a. timber.
b. coal.
c. water power.
d. electricity.
e. copper.
The Englishman Henry Cort was responsible for the process in iron smelting known as
a. puddling.
b. cottling.
c. the open hearth.
d. skimming.
e. corking.
The development of such superior locomotives as the Rocket, used on the first public railway lines, is attributed to
a. Timothy Faulkner.
b. George Stephenson.
c. Richard Trevithick.
d. Walter Zofrin.
e. Ian Botham.
The development of the railroads in the Industrial Revolution was important in
a. increasing British supremacy in civil and mechanical engineering.
b. increasing the size of markets and the price of goods.
c. bringing about the demise of joint-stock companies.
d. defeating Napoleon.
e. making London a great port city.
The new set of values established by factory owners during the Industrial Revolution
a. was rejected by evangelical religions as being "unchristian."
b. was basically a continuation from the cottage industry system.
c. was never adopted by the working class.
d. relegated the worker to a life of harsh discipline and the rigors of competitive wage labor.
e. was inspired by the examples of Belgium and France.
A frequent method employed to make the many very young boys and girls working in new British industries obey the owner's factory discipline was
a. the promise of increased wages.
b. bribes of candy.
c. heavy fines for lost time.
d. lectures and schooling in the rules to parents.
e. repeated beatings.
The rise of the industrial factory system deeply affected the lives and status of workers who now
a. were often paid in kind.
b. no longer owned the means of economic production and could only sell their labor for a wage.
c. were less vulnerable to more rapid cycles of economic boom and bust.
d. got both good wages and many fringe benefits unknown before.
e. became serfs, legally tied to factories.
The Great Exhibition of 1851
a. showed how the Industrial Revolution had produced wealth from the coal mines of
b. displayed Great Britain's industrial wealth to the world.
c. was housed in the Royal Palace, a tribute to French engineering skills.
d. showed British agricultural technology to the world.
e. was modeled upon the Parisian Exhibition of 1815.
One of the chief reasons why Europe initially lagged behind England in industrialization was a lack of
a. banking facilities.
b. roads and means of transportation.
c. manpower.
d. capital for investment.
e. lack of intellect.
To keep their industrial monopoly, Britain attempted to
a. export fewer goods to continental countries.
b. prohibit industrial artisans from going abroad.
c. limit financial investment overseas.
d. increase tariffs to keep out foreign manufactured goods.
e. permanently dismantle its empire.
Industrialization began on the continent first in
a. Spain and Italy.
b. Belgium, France and Germany.
c. Russia and Sweden.
d. Sweden and Denmark.
e. Russia.
One of the differences between British and Continental industrialization was that
a. government played a larger role in British industrialization. .
b. Britain relied upon railroads while Continental nations primarily made use of rivers and
c. government played a larger role in Continental industrialization.
d. Continental industrialization relied more upon textile manufacturing than did Britain.
e. none of the above
Before ____, the industrialism that had developed in western and central Europe and the United States did not extend in any significant way to the rest of the world.
a. 1800
b. 1825
c. 1850
d. 1870
e. 1900
The initial application of machinery to production in the United States was
a. entirely the result of American inventors and inventions.
b. by borrowing from Great Britain.
c. by learning from the mistakes made in France and doing the opposite.
d. to use only adult males as factory workers.
e. to employ slaves in the new southern cotton mills.
By 1850, all of the following countries were close to Britain in industrial output except
a. Germany.
b. Belgium.
c. the United States.
d. France.
e. Russia.