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AP Euro Ch. 16 & 17
Terms in this set (100)
The Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century
although an innovative phase in western thinking, was based upon the intellectual and scientific accomplishments of previous centuries
According to Leonardo da Vinci, what subject was the key to understanding the nature of things?
The greatest achievements in science during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries came in what three areas?
astronomy, medicine, and mechanics
Copernicus's major book was titled
On the revolution of the Heavenly Spheres
Johannes Kepler was the first astronomer to show that
planetary orbits are elliptical
The Starry Messenger
The Inquisition found Galileo guilty of teaching condemned ideas and sentenced him
to house arrest
Concerning Galileo and his ideas, the Catholic Church
forced Galileo to recant them in a trial before the Inquisition
Isaac Newton's scientific discoveries
although readily accepted in his own country, were resisted on the continent
created a new cosmology in which the world was seen largely in mechanistic terms
Paracelsus revolutionized the world of medicine in the sixteenth century by
advocating the chemical philosophy of medicine
On the Fabric of the Human Body
was Andreas Vesalius's masterpiece on anatomical structure
The scientist whose work led to the law that states that the volume of a gas varies with the pressure exerted upon it and who argued that matter is composed of atoms, later known as the chemical elements, was
The author of Observations upon Experimental Philosophy and Grounds of Natural Philosophy was
Maria Sibylla Merian
gained fame as an important entomologist
During the 17th and 18th centuries, female midwives
were replaced by men who used devices and techniques derived from the study of anatomy
The philosophy of Rene Descartes
stressed a separation of mind and matter
The foundation of Francis Bacon's scientific method was built on
In his work "Pensees", Pascal
attempted to convince rationalists that Christianity was valid by appealing to their reason and emotions
During the 17th century, royal and princely patronage of science
became an international phenomenon
Which one of the following comments best summarizes the impact of the Scientific Revolution on Western Civilization?
It was a major turning point that represented cooperation in the pursuit of new knowledge
All of the following are considered possible influences and causes of the Scientific Revolution except
the practical knowledge and technical skills emphasized by sixteenth-century universities.
Among the following, who is not associated with major changes in sixteenth and seventeenth-century scientific research?
is regarded as the father of modern chemistry
Benedict de Spinoza
claimed that God was not just the creator the universe - God was the universe
Benedict Spinoza believed that women
were naturally inferior to men
Concerning the first important scientific societies, the French Academy differed from the English Royal Society in the former's
corporal and capital punishment were on the decline
Copernicus preferred the heliocentric model because
it made the planetary orbits easier to calculate
Descartes believed that the world could be understood by
the same principles inherent in mathematical thinking.
The first European to make systematic observations of the heavens by telescope was
Following upon Copernicus's heliocentric theories
Johannes Kepler used data to derive laws of planetary motion that confirmed Copernicus's heliocentric theory but showed that the orbits were elliptical
For Blaise Pascal, humans
could not understand infinity, only God could.
For Spinoza, the failure to understand God led to
people using nature for their own self-interest.
Galileo's Dialogue on the Two World Systems was really an attempt to
suppport copericus through a publication in italian accessible to a wide audience
Galileo was convicted of heresy and sentenced to house arrest for life in 1633 for
ridiculing the Ptolemaic model in print.
The general conception of the universe before Copernicus was that
the earth was the stationary center and heavenly spheres orbited it.
The ideas of Copernicus were
nearly as complicated as those of Ptolemy
The immediate reaction of the clerics to the theories of Copernicus was
condemnation, initially by Protestant leaders like Luther who condemned the discovery as contrary to their literal interpretation of the Bible.
Margaret Cavendish attacked the belief
that humans through science were masters of nature.
Newton's contribution to astronomy was to prove that
the planets obey the same laws as do objects on earth.
Newton's major work was
Organized religions in the seventeenth century
rejected scientific discoveries that conflicted with the Christian view of the world.
The overall effect of the Scientific Revolting on the argument about women was to
generate facts about differences between men and women that were used to prove male dominance.
The Ptolemaic conception of the universe was also known as
The role of women in the Scientific Revolution is illustrated by
Margaret Cavendish, who participated in her era's scientific debates.
Scholars devoted to Hermeticism
saw the world was a living embodiment of divinity where humans could use mathematics and magic to dominate nature.
Science became an integral part of Western culture in the eighteenth century because
it offered a new means to make profits and maintain social order.
The scientific societies of early modern Europe established the first
scientific journals appearing regularly.
Tycho Brahe contributed to the advance of astronomy by
making accurate observations of the planets
What actions did the Catholic Church pursue concerning Galileo and his ideas?
foreced to recant them in a trial before the inquisition
What was the name of Descartes' book that expounded his theories about the universe?
Discourse on Method
Which of these ancient authorities was not relied on by medieval scholars?
William Harvey's On the Motion of the Heart and Blood refuted the ideas of
the liver as the beginning point of the circulation of blood.
The scientist-philosopher who provides a link between the scientists of the 17th century and the philosophes of the next was
Bernard de Fontenelle
The French philosophes
were literate intellectuals who meant to change the world through reason and rationality
Isaac Newton and John Locke
provided inspiration for the Enlightenment by arguing that through rational reasoning and the acquisition of knowledge one could discover natural laws governing all aspects of human society
In the Spirit of laws, Montesquieu argued that the best political system in a modern society is one where
power is divided between the three branches of government
The recognized capital of the Enlightenment was
Voltaire was the author of
Treatise on Toleration, The plays of Edipe and henriade, and Philosophic Letters on the English
The leader of the Physiocrats and their advocacy of natural economic laws was
An early female philosophe who published a translation of Newton's principia and who was the mistress of Voltaire was
the Marquise du Chatelet
The purpose of Diderot's encyclopedia was to
change the general way of thinking
Adam Smith believed that government
should not interfere in people's economic decisions
According to the Social Contract, the "general will" was
a social consensus to which the individual must bow
According to Rousseau, the source of inequality and the chief cause of crimes was
Which of the following statements concerning salons is not true?
Salons were frequented by wealthy bourgeoisie nut shunned by aristocrats and government officials
The strongest statement and vindication of women's rights during the Enlightenment was made by
The Baroque-Rococo artistic style of the 18th century was
evident in the masterpieces of Balthasar Neumann
Johann Sebastian Bach
produced religious music as a way to worship God
European music in the later 18th century is best associated with
Haydn and Mozart, who shifted the musical center from Italy and Germany to the Austrian Empire
18th century writers, especially in England, used this new form of literary expression to attack the hypocrisies of the era and provide sentimental entertainment to growing numbers of readers:
The growth of reading and publishing in the 18th century was aided and characterized by the development of
magazines for the general public
A less brutal approach to justice and punishment in the 18th century is associated with
By the end of the 18th century
corporal and capital punishment were on the decline
Carnival was celebrated in the weeks leading up to
In the 18th century Europe, churches, both Catholic and Protestant,
still played a major role in social and spiritual areas
The religious movement that came to be known as Methodism
became a separate and independent sect from the Anglican Church
Enlightened thinkers can be understood as secularists because they strongly recommended
the application of the scientific method to the analysis and understanding of all aspects of human life
The German philosopher Immanuel Kant proclaimed the motto of the Enlightenment to be
Dare to Know
European intellectual life in the eighteenth century was marked by the emergence of
secularization and a search to find the natural laws governing human life.
The works of Fontenelle announce the Enlightenment because they
popularize a growing skepticism toward the claims of religion.
John Locke's philosophy contributed to the development of Enlightenment ideas by arguing that a person's character was shaped by
Above all, Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws was concerned with
maintaining balances among the various branches of government
Voltaire was best known for his criticism of
Deism was based on
the Newtonian world-machine with God as its mechanic, designing the universe in accord with rational laws.
The belief in natural laws underlying all areas of human life led to
the social sciences
Diderot's most famous contribution to the Enlightenment's battle against religious fanaticism, intolerance, and prudery was his
Who said that individuals "will forced to be free"?
In Rousseau's The Social Contract, he expressed his belief that
freedom is achieved by being forced to follow what is best for all or the "general will"
Rousseau's influential novel, Emile, deals with these key Enlightenment themes:
proper child rearing and human education
Which eighteenth-century composer was considered most innovative and wrote the opera, The Marriage of Figaro?
The establishment of the modern fictional novel is generally attributed to the
Great Britain led the way in the eighteenth century in producing
magazines, newspapers, and coffee houses
The eighteenth century musical composition that has been called one of those rare works that appeal immediately to everyone, and yet is indisputably a masterpiece of the highest order is
By the beginning of the eighteenth century, most European states
had a hierarchy of courts to deal with civil and criminal cases
The punishment of crime in the eighteenth century was often
public and gruesome
The Jews of eighteenth-century Europe
were most free in participating in banking and commercial activities in tolerant cities.
created his evangelical Methodist movement using revivalist techniques
In reaction to significant elements of rationalism and deism, in what two countries did some ordinary Protestant churchgoers chose new religious movements?
England and Germany
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