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Gordon Allport thought traits were wired into the brain.


Personality assessments conducted by behaviorists sometimes make use of ________.

Rating scales and frequency

According to Carl Rogers, anxiety and neurotic behaviors occur when ________.

there is a discrepancy between the real self and ideal self

What is the relationship between temperament and personality?

temperament, which we are born with, is the basis upon which one's personality is built.

A baseball player's son is quite talented; he has received lots of awards over the years. When he gets up to bat he expects to get a hit, and when he is in the field he expects to make every catch. According to Bandura, what characteristic does this young man seem to have?


What is one criticism of projective tests?

They have low validity and reliability

According to Rogers, people brought up with unconditional positive regard ________.

feel valued regardless of their attitudes and behaviors

You are about to undergo delicate brain surgery that requires great skill on the part of the surgeon. As the surgical team wheels you into the operating room, you hope the surgeon has a high level of ________.


In which psychosexual stage do sexual interests reawaken and become stronger?


The age at which a baby was weaned would have most impact on the ________ stage.


According to Rogers, one's perception of whom one should be or would like to be is called the real self.


According to Freud, a boy's sexual attachment to his mother and jealousy of his father is called ________.

the oedipus complex

According to Freud's theory of personality development, there are ________ stages that each person must pass through


Which of the following was NOT a neo-Freudian?


Language can be a barrier to effective psychotherapy, particularly when the cultural backgrounds of the client and therapist are different.


Gary takes antipsychotic drugs to control the symptoms of schizophrenia. After taking the drug for some time, he begins exhibiting repetitive, involuntary jerks and movements of his face, lips, and legs. Gary is showing signs of ________.

tardive dyskinesia

Antipsychotic drugs treat symptoms such as ________.

hallucination, delusions, and bizarre behavior

The kind of therapy that involves talking things out with a professional is called ________.


During free association, a patient may become unwilling to talk about certain topics. What term would a psychoanalyst use to describe this change in the patient's willingness to verbalize?


The use of antianxiety drugs to treat anxiety disorders is gradually being phased out in favor of treatment with ________ drugs.


Saleem has been seeing a therapist because she cannot adjust to her new husband's children from a previous marriage. Although she dearly loves her husband, she feels awkward and embarrassed in front of the children. The therapist suggests that she bring her husband and his children with her to the next session so she can see them interact. Saleem is probably seeing a ________.

family therapist

According to Carl Rogers, the ________ is how people think they should be.

ideal self

Medication, electroconvulsive shock therapy, and psychosurgery are all types of ________.

biomedical therapy

According to Freud, the ________ of the dream refers to the hidden, symbolic meaning of the dream, which, if correctly interpreted, reveals the unconscious conflicts that created the nervous disorder.

latent content

What are two of the major classes of antidepressant drugs?

MAO inhibitors and tricyclics

For which of these problems would systematic desensitization most likely be used?

a fear of heights restricts Alice's enrollment to classes that meet on the first floor

A treatment for severe depression in which an electric shock is delivered to the patient, resulting in a seizure of the body and the release of a flood of neurotransmitters in the brain, is called ________.

electroconvulsive therapy

Each day, while Sid is sitting at his desk at work, he continually thinks about germs. Each time this occurs, he washes his hands. Sid probably suffers from ________.

obsessive-compulsive disorder

Which of the following is a disorder that takes the form of a bodily ailment that has no physical cause?


Hippocrates maintained that mental illness was ________.

caused by imbalance of vital body fluids

According to cognitive psychologists, somatoform disorders are ________.

a result of magnifying symptoms and allowing false beliefs to dominate one's thinking

Which cognitive event, often attributed to the work of Martin Seligman, is hypothesized as contributing to the development and maintenance of major depression?

learned helplessness

A patient in a psychiatric hospital exhibits disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations. This person is probably suffering from ________.


Excessive worry is a feature of mood disorders.


Which of the following culture-bound syndromes is found mostly in Western cultures?

anorexia nervosa

Archaeologists have found skulls from as long ago as 3000 B.C. that bear evidence of an ancient surgical technique, whereby holes were cut into the skulls of live individuals in an attempt to release demons from the possessed victim. This process is called ________.


One of the most effective treatments for seasonal affective disorder is phototherapy.


A behavioral therapist is working with a depressed client. Which of the following causes is the most likely focus of this therapist's intervention?

learned behaviors of depression

Rey always has panic attacks when he is in crowds. Lately, they occur so frequently and unexpectedly that he avoids any place or situation where he expects to be among large groups of people. Rey is most likely to be diagnosed with ________.

panic disorder with agoraphobia

During the Renaissance, abnormal behavior was believed to result from ________.


A cognitive therapist is working with a depressed client. Which of the following causes is the likely focus of this therapist's intervention?

negative interpretations of life events

Disorders such as koro, susto, and amok are considered ________.

culture-bound syndromes

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