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47 terms

Fluid/Electrolyte/Acid/Base Balance Term Quiz

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acidosis
Blood ph below normal (less then 7.35 in arterial blood). It can be either metabolic (bicarbonate deficit) or respiratory (carbonic acid excess)
aldosterone
A hormone secreted from the adrenal cortex; the principle mineral corticosteroid. Aldosterone causes the kidney to excrete K+ and reabsorb Na+ causing water to be reabsorbed
Alkalosis
Blood pH above normal (greater than 7.45 in arterial blood). It can be either metabolic (bicarbonate excess) or respiratory (carbonic acid deficit)
anion
a negatively charged ion
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
A hormone secreted from the pituitary mechanism that causes the kidney to conserve water.
CO2 content
a lab test that measures total bicarbonate (HCO3) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) in plasma.
Cation
a positively charged ion
Chvostek's sign
a sign elicited by tapping the facial nerve about 2cm anterior to the earlobe, just below the zygomatic process. The response is a spasm of the muscles supplied by the facial nerve.
Colloid
a substance that does not dissolve into a true solution and is not capable of passing through a semipermeable membrane; opposite of crystalloid
Crystalloid
a substance that forms a true solution and, therefore, is capable of passing through a semipermeable membrane; opposite of colloid.
D5W
5% dextrose in water
dehydration
a deficit of body water
electrolyte
a substance that ionizes (develops an electrical charge when dissolved in water)
extracellular fluid (ECF)
body fluid located outside the cell. It consists of two types: interstitial (tissue fluid) and intra vascular (plasma)
fluid volume deficit
decreased body fluid volume. Usually refers to a deficit of ECF.
hypercalcemia
an excess of calcium (Ca++) in the blood
hypercholermia
an excess of chloride (CL-) in the blood
hyperkalemia
an excess of potassium (K+) in the blood
hypermagnesemia
an excess of magnesium (Mg++) in the blood
hypernatremia
an excess of sodium (Na+) in the blood
hyperosmolar fluid
a fluid having an osmolality greater than that with which it is compared (usually plasma)
hypertonic solution
a solution more concentrated than that with which it is compared
hypocalcemia
a low calcium concentration in the blood
hypochloremia
a low chloride concentration in the blood
hypokalemia
a low potassium concentration in the blood
hypomagnesemia
a low magnesium concentration in the blood
hypoatremia
a low sodium concentration in the blood
hypotonic solution
a solution less concentrated that that with which it is compared
hypovolemia
a decrease in the fluid volume in the vascular compartment
insensible fluid loss
water lost from the lungs and skin (non visible perspiration)
interstitial fluid
fluid between the cells (part of extracellular fluid)
intracellular fluid
the fluid portion of the blood (plasma). Part of the extracellular fluid
ion
an electrically charged atom or group of atoms
isotonic fluid
a fluid having the same concentration as that with which it is compared
LR
Lactated Ringers solution
milliequivalent (mEq)
a unit of chemical activity
NSS
Normal saline solution
osmol
the standard unit of osmotic pressure
osmosis
movement of water molecules from an area of lesser solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration
osmotic pressure
the drawing power for water, determined by the number of particles per unit volume
PaCO2
the partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood
PAO2
the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood
pH
Hydrogen ion (H+) concentration. Acidity increases as H+ increases. Because of an inverse relationship between pH and H+ concentration, the pH value decreases as acidity increases.
plasma
the liquid portion of blood in which the blood cells are suspended
sensible perspiration
visible perspiration; opposite of insensible
serum
plasma from which firbrogen has been separated in the process of clotting
Trousseau's sign
a spasm of the hand elicited when the blood supply to the hand is decreased or nerve of the hand is stimulated by pressure. It is elicited within several minutes by applying a blood pressure cuff inflated above systolic pressure