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Blood ph below normal (less then 7.35 in arterial blood). It can be either metabolic (bicarbonate deficit) or respiratory (carbonic acid excess)


A hormone secreted from the adrenal cortex; the principle mineral corticosteroid. Aldosterone causes the kidney to excrete K+ and reabsorb Na+ causing water to be reabsorbed


Blood pH above normal (greater than 7.45 in arterial blood). It can be either metabolic (bicarbonate excess) or respiratory (carbonic acid deficit)


a negatively charged ion

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

A hormone secreted from the pituitary mechanism that causes the kidney to conserve water.

CO2 content

a lab test that measures total bicarbonate (HCO3) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) in plasma.


a positively charged ion

Chvostek's sign

a sign elicited by tapping the facial nerve about 2cm anterior to the earlobe, just below the zygomatic process. The response is a spasm of the muscles supplied by the facial nerve.


a substance that does not dissolve into a true solution and is not capable of passing through a semipermeable membrane; opposite of crystalloid


a substance that forms a true solution and, therefore, is capable of passing through a semipermeable membrane; opposite of colloid.


5% dextrose in water


a deficit of body water


a substance that ionizes (develops an electrical charge when dissolved in water)

extracellular fluid (ECF)

body fluid located outside the cell. It consists of two types: interstitial (tissue fluid) and intra vascular (plasma)

fluid volume deficit

decreased body fluid volume. Usually refers to a deficit of ECF.


an excess of calcium (Ca++) in the blood


an excess of chloride (CL-) in the blood


an excess of potassium (K+) in the blood


an excess of magnesium (Mg++) in the blood


an excess of sodium (Na+) in the blood

hyperosmolar fluid

a fluid having an osmolality greater than that with which it is compared (usually plasma)

hypertonic solution

a solution more concentrated than that with which it is compared


a low calcium concentration in the blood


a low chloride concentration in the blood


a low potassium concentration in the blood


a low magnesium concentration in the blood


a low sodium concentration in the blood

hypotonic solution

a solution less concentrated that that with which it is compared


a decrease in the fluid volume in the vascular compartment

insensible fluid loss

water lost from the lungs and skin (non visible perspiration)

interstitial fluid

fluid between the cells (part of extracellular fluid)

intracellular fluid

the fluid portion of the blood (plasma). Part of the extracellular fluid


an electrically charged atom or group of atoms

isotonic fluid

a fluid having the same concentration as that with which it is compared


Lactated Ringers solution

milliequivalent (mEq)

a unit of chemical activity


Normal saline solution


the standard unit of osmotic pressure


movement of water molecules from an area of lesser solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration

osmotic pressure

the drawing power for water, determined by the number of particles per unit volume


the partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood


the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood


Hydrogen ion (H+) concentration. Acidity increases as H+ increases. Because of an inverse relationship between pH and H+ concentration, the pH value decreases as acidity increases.


the liquid portion of blood in which the blood cells are suspended

sensible perspiration

visible perspiration; opposite of insensible


plasma from which firbrogen has been separated in the process of clotting

Trousseau's sign

a spasm of the hand elicited when the blood supply to the hand is decreased or nerve of the hand is stimulated by pressure. It is elicited within several minutes by applying a blood pressure cuff inflated above systolic pressure

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