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Lecture 3 Exam 2
Terms in this set (18)
What are the 4 primary feeding groups of dairy cattle?
Calves, Heifers, Lactating cows, Dry cows
What is "effective fiber"? Why is it important?
Has a scratch factor the stimulates rumen, which improves digestion
What is the minimum forage level for lactating dairy cows? What is the suggested maximum?
1% of their body weight is the minimum forage level, the suggested maximum is 1.75-2% of the body weight as DM.
How might forage intake be increased?
Feeding multiple times per and/or feeding a variety of forages
Concentrates should be limited to what % of the diet? Why?
60% of diet DM. because excess grain will increase propionate and decrease acetate production by rumen microbes. Decreased acetate will cause decreased milk fat %.
What are the 5 stages of production?
Early lactation, peak dry matter intake, mid to late lactation, early dry period, and transition (late) period.
What is negative energy balance? When is it likely to occur? Why? How can it be minimized?
Negative energy balance is when the cow cannot consume enough nutrients to keep up with her requirements. This usually occurs in early lactation because milk production increases rapidly. This can be minimized by increasing diet energy density by increasing grain 1-2lbs per day after calving, keeping grain at 65% of the diet DM, or 1-1.5 lb of added fat per day (6% of grain mix).
What type of protein is most beneficial during early lactation?
(RUP)Rumen Ungradable protein (fishmeal, blood meal, and feather meal)
What is the minimum total diet DM for lactating cows? Why?
50% or greater. May limit inclusion of some wet byproduct feeds and silage
Should high producing cows be fed urea?
No they should be limited to 0.2-0.4lb per day
Why is mid to late lactation the easiest to manage nutritionally?
Milk production is declining, cow is pregnant, nutrient exceeds requirements (replace body condition), and match grain intake with milk production.
How might the diet change during this period? What about cows on bST?
You can feed higher % forage and lower % CP. Can use urea at 0.4-0.5 lb per day. High-producing herds, especially if using BST, may skip this period and continue Phase 2.
How does DMI change as cows enter the early dry period? How should the diet be changed? Why?
Should have 2% of body weight
Thin cows 4-5 lb of grain but good condition cows should not be fed grain
High levels of silage can result in fat around liver and displaced abomasum
What is the maximum amount of total dietary fat that can be in a dairy cow diet? What are some potential sources? What other nutrient must be considered when feeding fat? Why?
Can be fed up to 10% fat, some sources that they can get this from would be oilseed (soybeans, cottonseed, etc.), animal fats, and dry fats. Protein- digestibility
What are the benefits of feeding vitamin E to dairy cows?
It may decrease oxidized flavor in milk, incidence and severity of mastitis, and retained placenta.
Why might buffers be beneficial in lactating dairy cow diets?
Regulates rumen pH. Stabilize pH in stomach
What effects does bST have on dairy cows?
Bovine somatotropin increases production 10-25% during injection period and will cause DMI to increase 3-7% over lactation. During the increase in DMI a lag occurs in early lactation and you must give cows the opportunity to eat more.
What are the limits for use of distillers grains in dairy cow diets?
Can formulate nutritionally balanced diets with up to 20% of diet DM. You have to be conscious of the phosphorus and sulfur concentrations and with >25% WDGS the gut may fill and limit the dry matter intake.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Lecture 1 Exam 2
Lecture 2 Exam 2
Lecture 4 Exam 2
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