78 terms

Chapter 10- Carl Rogers

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Terms in this set (...)

Actualization tendency
Basic human motivation to actualize, maintain, and enhance the self. Process involves difficult growth.
Organismic valuing process
Process of judging based on value for actualization and growth.
Phenomenology
-Only reliable reality is subjective experience & inner perception of reality.
-Our experiences become the only basis for our judgement and behaviors.
Postive regard
-Acceptance, love, and approval from others.
-Universal and persistent need.
Unconditional positive regard
Approval regardless of one's behavior
Positive self regard
Condition under which we grant ourselves acceptance & approval.
Conditions of Worth
Belief that we are only worthy approval for desirable behaviors & attitudes.
Conditional Positive regard
Approval & acceptance granted only when person exhibits desirable behaviors.
Incongruence
-Discrepancy between self-concept & experience
-Incongruent experiences become threatening.
-Psychological adjustment is compatibility between self-concept & experiences
Fully functioning person
-Self-actualization
-Developing all facets of the self
-Desired result of psychological development
Characteristics of a fully functioning person
-Aware of all experience, live richly & fully in every moment, trust own organism, feel free to make choices, are creative and live constructively, may face difficulties
Person-Centered therapy
-therapy approach
-Client is assumed to be responsible for changing
-focus on subjective experience
Encounter groups
-Group therapy for learning about feelings & relating
-Others developed tests of experience
Rogers research
-focus: client self-report
-person-centered therapy
-openness to experience
-acceptance of self
-emotional adjustment
-first to film therapy sessions for research
Q-sort technique
-Self-report technique for assessing self-concept
Contributions
-Person centered therapy became popular; highly accessible
-Core concepts accepted by other orientations
-Emphasis on self-concept widely recognized
Criticims
-Lack of clarification of mechanisms
-Criticized for influences outside of person's perspectives
A fully functioning person feels a(n)
ability to live richly and creatively in the moment
Rogers believed personality is influence primarily by
conscious perception of ourselves and our experiential world
According to Rogers, the best way to understand personality is through
a person's subjective experiences
For Rogers, the ultimate goal is to become a
fully functioning person
Rogers childhood was characterized by
parents who loved him in subtle ways, but held strict religious views and emphasized moral behavior
According to Rogers, the way we see our environment is
dependent on our perception of it, which may not always coincide with reality
To Rogers, the only valid way to study personality is through
examining each person's subjective perceptions
Rogers' terms for the acceptance we need from others is
positive regard
According to Rogers, unconditional positive regard
is not dependent on the child's behavior
Conditions of worth derive from
internalizing parents' norms and standards
Once infants develop conditions of worth, they
must avoid certain behaviors that otherwise might be personally satisfying
Our level of psychological adjustment and emotional health is a function of the extent for which our
self is congruent with our environment
All of the following are characteristics of a fully functioning person except
achievement of as much wealth and power as one's potential allows
In Rogers' theory of human nature
one aspect of personality... predispositional
Rogers believed that personality should be
Unconditional positive regard
In Rogers' approach to therapy, the therapist provides
unconditional positive regard
The only predetermined belief of the person-centered therapist is
the client's inherent value and worth
With regard to experiemtnal research, Rogers
preferred to have a clearer view of a person's experiential world
Rogers believed that the essence of human nature is
an innate drive for actualization
The self-reports, children whose parents used conditional regard
showed poor coping skills, fluctuating levels of self-esteem and low self worth
Parents who accepted their children unconditionally and displayed democratic child rearing practices
had children with higher self-esteem and greater emotional security
To say that Rogers took a phenomenological approach recognize that he emphasized
understanding the point of view of the client
Rogers regarded the fundamental motivation to be
the actualizing tendency
If a person is highly incongruent
the real self and ideal self are in conflict
Rogers' term for acceptance we need from others is
positive regard
Our level of psychological adjustment is a function of the extent to which
self is contingent with environment
Rogers term for understanding others as they see themselves is
empathy
At an intrapsychic level, differentiation refers to the ability to distinguish between
intellect and emotion
Highly differentiated individuals are thought to
demonstrate better psychological adjustment;
remain in satisfying contact with families of origin
People who are highly differentiated tend to also be
emotionally regulated
rogers contributions:
a system of thought in which human interests and values are of primary importance
humanistic psychology
rogers contributions:
-theory developed from therapeutic approach, ________ therapy
-person direct change; therapist facilitates
-emphasis on the ____ and _____
- a single, inborn overriding motivation to actualize (develop our abilities and tendencies to become a fully functioning person)
person-centered
conscious & present
basic human motivation to actualize, maintain, and enhance the self; not automatic or effortless (process involved difficult growth)
actualization tendency
process of judging based on value for actualization and growth
organismic valuing process
this of an individual provides the frame of reference or context that influences growth
experiential world
only reliable reality is our subjective experience and inner perception of reality
-our experiences become the only basis of our judgements and behaviors
phenomenology
acceptance, love and approval from others (universal and persistent need)
positive regard
approval regardless of ones behavior
unconditional positive regard
condition under which we grant ourselves acceptance and approval
positive self-regard
only worth of approval for desirable behaviors and attitudes (similar to freuds superego)
conditions of worth
approval, acceptance only when person exhibits desirable behaviors (this means that sometimes children will avoid behaviors that otherwise might be personally satisfying)
conditional positive regard
discrepancy between self-concept and experience
incongruence
compatibility between self-concept and experiences
psychological adjustment
desired result of psychological development (aware of all experience, live richly & fully in ever moment, trust in own organism, feel free to make choices, are creative & live constructively, may face difficulties)
fully functioning person
questions about human nature:
-focus on ___ __ and ___
- ____ influences
-childhood has some impact, but later experiences have more impact
-opportunity for uniqueness
-____ : people are able to improve themselves
- experience world openly; ___ outlook
free choice & present
environmental
optimistic
progressive
approach to therapy in which the client is assumed to be responsible for changing; focus on subjective experience
person-centered therapy
group therapy for learning about feelings and relating to one another (others developed tests of experience)
encounter groups
rogers believed personality is influenced primarily by
conscious rational factors
we can see origins of Rogers personality in his childhood experience of
living by someone elses view of the world rather than his own
rogers clinical experience while in academia was mostly with
young intelligence, highly verbal college students
rogers research on delinquent children showed that
self-insight was the best predictor of later behavior
rogers believed that the tendency to actualize is
innate
the purpose of what rogers called the organismic valuing process is to
evaluate life experiences by how well they serve actualization
according to rogers, the way we see our environment is
highly subjective
rogers believed that the experiential world is
unique to each individual
rogers term for the acceptance we need from others is
positive regard
what is not a characteristic of the fully functioning person
unconditional positive regard
which term best characterizes the self-actualizing person
enriched
rogers believed that childhood experiences are
less important than later experiences
what method did rogers use to assess personality?
clinical interviews
why are so many people unhappy? rogers says it is because
we have both a real self and an ideal self, and they are often in conflict