Islam & Africa

definition: the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
significance: founder of Islam, a prominent religion
definition: the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
significance: Prominent religion, helped bring unity to large stretches of land
definition: a believer or follower of Islam
significance: Spread Islamic religion
definition: the fourth caliph of Islam who is considered to be the first caliph by Shiites
definition: a city in western Saudi Arabia to where Muhammad had fled
significance: Islamic significance, location where Muhammad was buried, first Mosque
definition: City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion
significance: Important location in Islam
definition: the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire)
significance: true leaders of dar al-Islam, set up a puppet state
definition: the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
significance: Center of several debates, the leader of an expansive empire
Port city of Mali; located just off the flood plain on the great bend in the Niger River; population of 50,000; contained a library and university.
Stateless Societies
Term relating to societies such as those of Sub-Saharan Africa after the Bantu migrations that featured decentralized rule through family and kinship groups instead of strongly centralized hierarchies
West African kingdom found in the thirteenth century by Sundiata; it reach its peak during the reign of Mansa Musa
A state that dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th century. At its peak it was one of the largest states in African history.
Ibn Sina
Persian physician and philosopher whose medical textbook, The Canon of Medicine, is a comprehensive medical encyclopedia that remained a standard work in European medical studies until the 17th century.
Ibn Battuta
Moroccan Muslim scholar and traveler. He is known for his traveling and going on excursions called the Rihla. His journeys lasted for a period of almost thirty years.
Arabic Languages
there are 2 different kinds of Arabic. Classic Arabic is the language of the Qur'an and is used in books and newspapers.
Modern Arabic is used on television and radio, and in conversations between Arabic speakers.
definition: The Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622, marking the founding of Islam
significance: Founded Islam
Five Pillars of Islam
definition: the five basic acts of worship that are central to Islam (Faith, Prayer, Fasting, Alms, Pilgrimage)
significance: Foundation of Islam, reinforced by Muhammad
definition: the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Muhammed
significance: Sharia is still used today, prohibits actions according to Islam, demonstrates Muhammad's influences
definition: a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
significance: Sacred Muslim site, many pray at the Kaaba several times a day
Traditionalists," the most popular branch of Islam; Sunnis believe in the
legitimacy of the early caliphs, compared to the Shiite belief that only a descendent of Ali can
definition: the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
significance: source of many debates, one of the largest Islamic denominations
definition: the dynasty caliphs whose capital was Damascus, one of the largest empires ever
significance: Spanned large areas of land that facilitated trade and brought unity
definition: The dynasty that came after the Umayyads, devoted their energy to trade, scholorship, and the arts
significance: ushered in an era of flourishing of the dar al-Islam
Kingdom in west Africa during the 5th through thirteenth century whose rulers eventually converted to Islam; its power and wealth was based on dominating trans-Saharan trade
a group of Niger-Congo languages spoken in central and southern Africa, including Swahili, Xhosa, and Zulu.
''the lion prince''; founder of the Mali empire (1230-1255), also the inspiration for the Sundiata, an African literary and mythological work
Sundiata's grand nephew (reigned 1312-1337); ruled during the high point of empire; made pilgrammage to Mecca in 1324-1325 and after strongly promoted Islam
Trans-Sharan trade
These caravan routes across the Sahara connected trading centers in West Africa, North Africa, and East Africa. The earliest evidence of trade along these routes involved the people of the Sahhel orchestrating the exchange of salt from mines in the Sahara for gold from the Niger Valley region.
Indian Ocean trade
Was the largest sea trading area in the world until Europeans began crossing the Atlantic in the late 1400s. It connected Southeast Asia and China to Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. It was a major conveyor of Buddhism from S. Asia into East and Southeast Asia, and in the next era c. 600-c. 1450, Muslim merchants and missionaries spread their faith across the Indian Ocean into the same regions. Its trade depended on ocean currents and wind. People interacted via the Indian Ocean trade routes: E. Asians, S. Asians, E. African Swahilis, Arabs from Southwest Asia, Malays from Southeast Asia, Turks, Greeks, and Russians participated. It traded the same items traded in the Silk Roads and other Eurasian land routes.
an Arabic-influenced Bantu language that is spoken widely in eastern and central Africa
A type of religious belief that focuses on the roles of the various gods and spirits in the natural world and in human events. Animist religions are polytheistic and have been practiced in almost every part of the world.
the attempted reconciliation or union of different or opposing principles, practices, or parties, as in philosophy or religion.
Abu Bakr
definition: companion of 1st Muslim leader after Muhammad, regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful successor
significance: First sucessor to Muhammad, set the status-quo for Caliphs
definition: religious conceptualization of the world as belonging either to Muslim or non-Muslim territory, exists within Islam
significance: Allowed for expeditions from other countries to be facilitated
Quran (Koran)
definition: the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
significance: Basis of the Islamic faith
Pilgrimage to Mecca.
traveling people who lived throughout North Africa and Southwest Asia/Middle East, first followers of Islam
Arabic Numerals
A written number system created during the Gupta golden age in India, then adopted by the Islamic Empire before spreading further. Used throughout western civilization today.