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101 terms

Science Lab Quiz/test Physio II

Science Lab Quiz Physio II covers stuff on the quiz and on the test
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Tissue
a group of cells working together to perform a function; example: Blood
solid
red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets make up this part of the blood
platelet
cell fragment that is involved in the blood clotting process
red blood cell
carries oxygen; are red because they contain the pigment hemoglobin; do not have a nucleus
hemoglobin
pigment in red blood cells that binds to oxygen increasing the surface area of blood by nearly 60 times
white blood cell
protects our body against invading pathogens; contain a nucleus
AIDS
blood has few white blood cells present
AIDS
person has admitted to injecting drugs for the past six years, has pneumonia and skin cancer
sickle cell anemia
red blood cells are shaped like crescent moons
sickle cell anemia
african americans have it most often, always tired, has shortness of breath
leukemia
few red blood cells, many white blood cells
leukemia
has fever, sore throat, and frequent nose bleeds
Polycethemia
very many red blood cells
Polycethemia
has frequent headaches and nose bleeds, high blood pressure, very red complexion
thrombocytopenia purpurea
very few platelets
thrombocytopenia purpurea
has sudden appearance of purple marks under skin, bruises easily, does not clot after being cut
19:1
ratio of red to white blood cells in normal blood
phagocytes
type of white blood cell that eats, or engulf and destroys, pathogens
lymphocytes
type of white blood cell that produce antibodies that help destroy pathogens
plasma
the liquid part of the blood
heart attack
when your heart stops working and blood is not pumped. you can die shortly because you can not survive without the substances (oxygen mostly) that your blood carries.
4
How many chambers are there in the human heart?
2
How many chambers are there in a fish's heart?
poor
is blood that returns to a fish's heart from the body oxygen rich or poor?
gills
before blood is pumped back to the body cells of the fish it first goes through the heart and then to the...
oxygen
what does blood get at the gills of a fish?
yes
does oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood mix in a fish's heart?
3
how many chambers are there in an amphibian's heart?
poor
is blood that returns to an amphibian's heart from the body oxygen rich or poor?
atrium
when blood returns to the heart from the body, which does it pass through first, a ventricle or an atrium?
oxygen
what does blood get at the lungs?
yes
does oxygenated blood mix with deoxygenated blood in an amphibian's heart?
3
How many chambers are there in a reptile's heart?
poor
is blood that returns to a reptile's heart from the body oxygen rich or poor?
yes
does oxygenated blood mix with deoxygenated blood in a reptile's heart?
partial septum
what structure partially separates the left and right ventricles in reptiles and makes it so that the heart can correctly be called an incomplete four chambered heart?
valve
what structure is found between atriums and ventricles that makes sure blood flows in one direction?
4
How many chambers are there in a bird's heart?
deoxygenated
contains oxygenated or deoxygenated blood: superior vena cava
deoxygenated
contains oxygenated or deoxygenated blood: inferior vena cava
deoxygenated
contains oxygenated or deoxygenated blood: right atrium
deoxygenated
contains oxygenated or deoxygenated blood: right ventricle
deoxygenated
contains oxygenated or deoxygenated blood: pulmonary arteries
oxygenated
contains oxygenated or deoxygenated blood: pulmonary veins
oxygenated
contains oxygenated or deoxygenated blood: left atrium
oxygenated
contains oxygenated or deoxygenated blood: left ventricle
oxygenated
contains oxygenated or deoxygenated blood: aorta
septum
separates the left side of the heart from the right side of the heart
superior vena cava
brings oxygen poor blood from the upper part of the body to the right atrium
inferior vena cava
brings oxygen poor blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium
right atrium
recieves blood from the body cells
right ventricle
pumps blood away from the heart to the lungs
pulmonary arteries
bring oxygen poor blood to the right or left lung
pulmonary veins
bring oxygen rich blood from each of the lungs to the left atrium
left atrium
recieves blood from the lungs
left ventricle
pumps blood away from the heart to the body
aorta
sends oxygen rich blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the blody
bacteria
which type of pathogen causes typhoid fever?
pathogen
a disease causing agent
cancer
a disorder in which some of the body's own cells lose the ability to control growth
first
the body's ______ line of defense is to keep pathogens away from the body by using the skin, mucus, tears, sweat...
second
the body's ______ line of defense is the inflammatory response
inflammatory response
the body's reaction when a pathogen enters the body, millions of white blood cells are produced to fight the infection. The white blood cells get rid of the bacteria, and the tissue that is infected may become swollen and painful
third
the body's ______ line of defense is to react with a series of specific defenses called the immune response that is triggered by an antigen
antigen
a substance that triggers the immune response. it is located on the outside of a cell, and when it is unrecognized by the body, the cell is attacked.
antibody
a protein that recognizes and binds to a specific antigen
vaccine
an injection of a weakened form of a pathogen to produce immunity
HIV
this virus can be spread through any form of sexual intercourse with an infected person or through contact with the blood or blood contact with an infected person
carbon dioxide
gas produced as a result of burning fuels
aerobic
carbon dioxide is produced when going through ____________ respiration
basic
if a solution has a pH of 10, is it basic, acidic, or neutral?
acidic
if a solution has a pH of 4, is it basic, acidic, or neutral?
neutal
if a solution has a pH of 7, is it basic, acidic, or neutral?
acidic
when carbon dioxide is dissolved in water, is the solution basic, acidic, or neutral?
base
Phenolphthalein is a chemical that indicates the prescense of an acid, base, or a salt?
clear
What color is phenolphthalein when added to an acid?
pinkish- purple
What color is phenolphthalein when added to a base?
BTB
We did not use phenolphthalein in the lab. instead, we used a mixture of this indicator of CO2 and water. What are the initials of this indicator?
yellow
What color is BTB when it comes in contact with a super acidic solution/gas?
blue
What color is BTB to begin with?
increase
if your physical activity increases, then your rate of respiration will _______.
increase
if your physical activity increases, then your amount of CO2 in your breath will _______.
Medulla
what part of the brain controls the breathing rate, the cerebrum, medulla, cerebellum, or crainiumhypoteneuseelephantthingy?
Diffusion
once oxygen is in your lungs, it moves from the air spaces in your lungs into the blood stream by this process. (high to low concentration)
red blood cells
in what cells in your blood is oxygen found?
diffusion
oxygen moves from the red blood cells to the body cells by this process. (high to low concentration)
mitochondria
once oxygen enters the body cells, it combines with glucose (in the process of aerobic respiration) to form ATP. within which organelle does this chemical reaction known as aerobic respiration take place?
carbon dioxide
what waste gas is produced from aerobic respiration?
diffusion
carbon dioxide is made in body cells and then enters the blood by this process. (high to low concentration)
diffusion
Once at the lungs, the carbon dioxide in the blood leaves the blood and enters the air spaces in the lungs by this process. (high to low concentrations)
nostril
opening that lets air in and out of the body
pharynx
passageway for air and food. space at the back of the throat where cilia hairs push mucas that has caught dust and other particles that are not wanted in the lungs and clump it all together to be spit/ caughed out or swollowed.
epiglottis
flap that covers the trachea when you swollow to prevent food from going down "the wrong pipe"
larynx
contain two highly elastic folds of tissue known as the vocal chords that produce sound.
trachea
passageway for air to the lungs
lung
organ where gas exchange occurs
pleura
outer membrane protecting the lung. I(t attatches to the ribs and angers the lung. It is highly elastic.
bronchi
branch out from the trachea to the lungs where they carry air
bronchiole
branch out from the bronchi and carry oxygen to the alveoli
alveoli
exchange oxygen and CO2 with capillaries and blood
diaphragm
pulls out from lungs when sucking in air and pushes in on lungs when letting out CO2/ air.