18 terms

8th Grade Science - Genetics

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heredity
the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
DNA
carrier of genetic information

material present in nearly all living organisms
gene
a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring
chromosomes
threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells

carrying genetic information
asexual reproduction
a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism
(the opposite of sexual reproduction where there is a male and female)
mutations
the changing of the structure of a gene which may result in a something different in the offspring
genetic variation
a fact that a biological system - individual and population - is different over space.
genotype
the genetic make up of an individual organism
phenotype
the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
Alleles
a section of DNA found on chromosomes
Dominant
a physical trait that appears more often within a population than others
Heterozygous
when one allele is dominant and the other is recessive, but the dominant trait shows physically
Homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a particular gene
Meiosis
two part cell division.

DNA doubles.

Then those cells double.

Results in 4 daughter cells.
proteins
a molecule that is part of cell structure

determines the traits of the organism
Recessive
when a trait is not seen very often within a population
Mitosis
division of a cell into 2 cells having the same info as the parent nucleus
sexual reproduction
reproduction of 2 parents - one male, one female
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