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HDFS 2523: Professional Skills Exam 2
Terms in this set (59)
-Essential component in many theories and styles of helping, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), brief counseling, and much of career decision making.
-Provides a useful framework for focusing the session
-Help a session begin and move along smoothly
-Assist in pinpointing and clarifying issues, open up new areas for discussion, and aid in clients self-exploration
Types of questions
-Those that can't be answered in few words
-Tend to facilitate deeper exploration of client issues
-Encourage others to talk and provide you with maximum information
-Help clients elaborate and enrich their story
what, how, why, or could
-Enable you to obtain specifics and can usually be answered in very few words
-Provide useful information, but the burden of guiding the talk remains to the counselor
-Begin with "is, are, or do"
Empathy and Concreteness
-To be empathetic with a client requires that you understand specifically what the client is saying to you
- Concreteness is valuable in empathic understanding
-Look for specifics rather than vague generalities
The first word of open questions may determine the client response
questions most often lead to facts
questions may lead to an exploration of process or feeling and emotion
questions can lead to a discussion of reason (use with care)
Could, can, and would
questions are considered maximally and also contain some advantages of closed questions
Problems (With questions)
-Questions as statements
-Too many questions give too much control to the counselor and tend to put many clients on the defensive.
-Another form of bombardment
-Throwing out too many questions at once may confuse clients
-However, they may allow clients to select which question they prefer to answer
Questions as statements
-Questions that lead clients to answers that the client wants to hear
-Can be judgmental. Ex: "Don't you think it would be helpful if you studied more?"
-If you are going to make a statement, do not frame it in a question
-Can put clients on the defensive and cause discomfort
Identify Strengths (through questions)
-Clients tend to talk about their problems and what they can't do.
-This puts them "off-balance."
-A structural questioning format can help clients identify their previous success and strengths.
-We can help them feel better about themselves through strength inventory.
-What are they doing right.
Less Verbal Clients (Open vs. Closed Questions)
-Open questions require a verbal client who is willing to share with you
Suggestions to encourage clients to talk to you
-Build trust at the clients pace
-Search for concrete specifics
Talk high (on the abstraction ladder)
What is meant by "To talk in vague generalities"
-Give short responses that help clients keep talking. They may be verbal restatements (repeating key words and short statements) or nonverbal actions (head nods and smiling)
: clients elaborate on the topic, particularly when encouragers and restatements are used in a questioning tone of voice
-Shorten, clarify the essence of what has just been said, but be sure to use the clients main words when you paraphrase
-Paraphrases are often fed back to the client in a questioning tone of voice
: Clients will feel heard. They ted to give more detail without repeating the exact same story. If the paraphrase is inaccurate, the client has the opportunity to correct the counselor
-Summarize clients comments and integrate thoughts, emotions, and behaviors.
-This technique is similar to paraphrasing but used over a longer time span
-Important in the summary is that you seek to find strengths and resources the support the client.
: Clients will feel heard and often learn how many parts of their stories are integrated. The summary tends to facilitate a more focused and centered discussion. Also provides a more coherent transition from one topic to the next or a way to begin or end a full session.
-Demands that you participate fully by helping the client clarify, enlarge, and enrich the story.
-Requires that you be able to hear small changes in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
-Acts that you walk in the other persons shoes.
Unconditional Positive Regard
-Acceptance is another word for this
-An attitude of grace
-An attitude that values us even knowing our failures
-There is more emphasis on encouraging, paraphrasing, and summarizing skills
- Sometimes using the clients name.
The Key Words
- Used by the client to describe a situation to the client.
The Essence of What the Client has Said
- Use the clients key words in a brief clarification of what the client has said. Summaries are longer paraphrases that often include emotional dimensions as well.
- Check with the client to make sure that what you have fed back to him or her is accurate.
Reflection of feeling
-Identify the key emotions of a client and feed them back to clarify affective experience. With some clients, the brief acknowledgment of feeling may be more appropriate
-Often combined with paraphrasing and summarizing
- clients will experience and understand their emotional state more fully and talk in more depth about emotions and feelings. They may correct the counselors reflection with a more accurate descriptor.
Reflecting Feelings (Techniques)
-Context of brief paraphrasing
-Tense and immediacy
Ex: "I hear you are feeling...", "Sounds like you feel..."
-Add an emotional word or feeling label to the the stem
Ex: "Looks like you're happy"
Context of brief paraphrase
-Add a brief paraphrase to broaden the reflection of feelings
-The words about, when, and because are a few
Ex: "Jonathan, you seem to feel bad about what has happened the past two weeks."
Tense and immediacy
-Reflections in the present tense tend to be more useful than those of past tense
Ex: "Right now you feel angry."
-Guilt, shame, pride, embarrassment
Helping clients increase or decrease emotional expressiveness
-Join clients where they are and pace them appropriately
-Discuss some positive aspects of the situation
-Consider asking questions
-Use gestalt exercises
-breath directly affects underlying feelings
-note facial flushing, pupil contraction/dilation, body tension, and changes in vocal tone; note especially speech hesitations
Pacing (Joining clients where they are and pacing them appropriately)
-You do this by listening and clarifying their stories
-Once you have a solid relationship and trust, you can pace clients and then lead them to more expression and awareness of effect.
Discussing this can free the client up to face the negative of the situation
Consider (asking questions)
-Used carefully, asking questions may help the client explore emotions.
-These exercises enable clients to become more aware of the feeling experienced through their bodies.
BLS (Basic Listening Sequence)
-Uses the microskills of using open and closed questions, encouraging, paraphrasing, reflecting feelings, and summarizing. These are supplemented by attending behavior and client observation skills.
: client will discuss their stories, issues, or concerns, including the key facts, thoughts, feelings and behaviors. Clients will feel that their stories have been heard.
Skills of BLS
: open questions followed by closed questions to bring out the story and diagnosis
: used throughout the session to evoke details
: cates the essence of what the client is saying
: examines the complexity of emotions
: brings order and makes sense of the client conversation
Five-stage model (for structuring the session)
1. Empathic Relationship
2. Story and Strengths
-initiating the session: rapport and structuring
-structure, listen for preliminary goals, share yourself as appropriate, observe and listen
Story and strengths
-gathering the data: drawing out stories, concerns, problems, or issues
-draw out the client's story, elaborate the story, draw out strength and resource stories, failure to treat
-Mutual goal setting: What does the client want to happen?
-Mutually and egalitarian approach, refining goals and making them more precise, summarize the differences between the present story and the preferred outcome.
-Working: exploring alternatives, confronting incongruities, and conflict
-Start the exploration process, encourage client creativity, relate client issues and concerns to desire outcomes, aim for decision and new story
-Contracting, homework and journaling, follow-up and support
-Terminating: generalizing and acting on new stories
-Use selective attention to focus the counseling session on the client, theme/concern/issue, significant others (partner/spouse, family, friends), a mutual "we" focus, the counselor, or the cultural/environmental context. You may also focus on what is going on in the here and now of the session.
: clients tend to focus their conversation or story on that the counselor responds to. As the counselor brings in new focuses, the story is elaborated from multiple perspectives. If you selectively attend only to the individual, the broader dimensions of the social context are likely to be missed
-Selective attention is basic to focusing but works in different ways
-A good way to develop an understanding of the value of focusing and enriching client stories
-Good picture of the clients background and history
-inelegant but highly descriptive term coined by the gestalt theorist Fritz Perls to describe the opposite of intentionality, or lack of creativity.
-also described as inability to resolve conflict, reconcile discrepancies, and deal with incongruity.
-an influencing skill that invites clients to examine their stories for discrepancies between verbal and nonverbal communication, between expressed attitudes and behaviors, or conflict with others.
-based on careful listening
Empathic and nonjudgmental confrontation
-An empathic relationship is essential if you are going to challenge the client with confrontation, along with good listening skills
: Requires that you suspend your own opinions and attitudes and assume value neutrally in your client. Expressed through vocal qualities and body language and by statements that indicate neither approval or disapproval
The skills of empathic confrontation: 3 step process
. Identify conflict by observing conflict, incongruities, discrepancies, ambivalence, and mixed messages
. Clarify issues of internal and external conflict and work toward resolution
. Evaluate the change process using Client Change Scale
Conflicts that reside primarily within the clients thoughts and feelings.
Conflicts between the client and the surrounding world
CCS (The Client Change Scale)
Helps you evaluate where the client is in the change process
2. partial examination
3. acceptance and recognition
4. creation of a new solution
Level 1 (Denial)
The individual denies or fails to hear that an incongruity or mixed message exists
Level 2 (Partial examination)
the client may work on a part of the discrepancy but fail to consider the other dimensions of the mixed message
Level 3 (Acceptance and recognition, but no change)
The client may engage in confrontation but makes no resolution.
Until the client can examine incongruity, stuckness, and mixed messages accurately, real change in thoughts, feelings, and behavior is difficult.
Coming to terms with anger or some other denied emotion is is a sufficient breakthrough and often is a sufficient solution of the client.
Level 4 (Creation of a new solution)
The client moves beyond recognition of the incongruity or conflict and puts things together in a new productive way. Needless to say, this usually does not happen immediately. It can take several sessions over a period of weeks and sometimes months.
Level 5 (Transcendence)
Many clients will never reach this stage. A confrontation is most successful when the client recognizes the discrepancy and generates new thought patterns or behaviors to cope with and resolve the incongruity
Originator of the 5 stage model
(Story and strengths, goals, restory, and action)
Father of counseling
Sad, Mad, Glad, and Scared
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