Ch.5 Contraception: Planning and Preventing

Terms in this set (63)

• Over 70 brands of birth control pills on the market in the U.S.; vary in amounts of estrogen (low, regular, high, or varied levels) and the type of progestin
• Body is tricked into thinking it is pregnant
• Monophasic pills contain the same dose of hormones in each pill
• Biphasic pills change the level of hormones once during the
menstrual cycle
• Multiphasic pills vary in hormone amount
• Triphasic pills have 3 sets of pills per month, each week the hormonal dosage increases
• Women using extended cycle regimens report higher satisfaction than women on traditional 21/7 regimens
• Women with history of circulatory problems, strokes, heart disease, breast or uterine cancer, hypertension, diabetes, undiagnosed vaginal bleeding advised not to take oral contraceptives
• Birth control pills offer possible protection from breast and cervical cancers
• Women using oral contraceptives have significantly lower rate of death from all cancers, compared to non-users
• Oral contraceptives 92 to 99.7% effective; may be less effective in overweight women

Progestin-Only Pills
• Minipill/POPs (progestin-only pills)
• Inhibit ovulation and thicken mucus
• Fewer side effects than combination pills
• 92-99.7% effective
• More expensive than combination pills
• Can cause irregular bleeding
• Higher rates of ectopic pregnancies for women who get pregnant while taking the minipill

• High effectiveness
• Familiar
• Regulate period
• Relieve menstrual symptoms
• Easy to use
•Reduced risk of cysts, PID & certain cancers

• Must take daily
• Timing is important
• No STI protection
• Side effects can include blood clots & stroke
•Can be expensive
• For some, increased nausea, headaches, decreased sexual desire from hormones
• User error
Currently, about half (51%) of the 6.6 million pregnancies in the United States each year (3.4 million) are unintended.
• 54% of women who have abortions reported having used a contraceptive method (usually the condom or the pill) during the month they became pregnant. Among those women, 76% of pill users and 49% of condom users report having used their method inconsistently. Importance of correct use!
• 46% of women who have abortions had not used a contraceptive method during the month they became pregnant. Of these women, 33% had perceived themselves to be at low risk for pregnancy, 32% had safety concerns about contraceptive methods, 26% had unexpected sex and 1% had been forced to have sex.
• Abortion rates in the U.S. have steadily decreased since the 1990s.
• One in three American women will have had an abortion by age 45.
• 50% of women obtaining abortions are younger than 25.
• About 60% of abortions are obtained by women who have one or more children.
• 43% of women obtaining abortions identify themselves as Protestant and 27% as Catholic.

Reasons women report for choosing abortion...
• Baby would interfere with life goals
• Lack of financial resources
• Poor relationship with the father
• Don't want others to know they had sex • Partner and/or family pressure to abort
• Fetal deformity or risk to mother's health
• Rape

Women's Reactions
• Physiological symptoms:
•Surgeon General's report found physiological health consequences (infertility, miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight, future cancer risk) no more common in women who have had abortions compared to the general population of women
• Immediately following the procedure: cramping, heavy bleeding, nausea

Psychological symptoms:
• A woman's feelings are often correlated with her society's
views on abortion
• There is little known about reactions to medical abortions
• Many women cycle through feelings of relief, happiness, shame, guilt, fear of disapproval, regret, anxiety, depression, doubt, anger, sense of loss, sadness.

• In about 10% of cases a woman has severe reactions. • Factors that make someone more at-risk for severe
psychological symptoms:
• Younger at time of abortion
• Lack of family or partner support
• Persuaded/pressured to have an abortion or difficult time making the decision
• Strong religious & moral background
• Medical or genetic reasons for abortion (i.e. if born, child
would not have survived)
• History of psychiatric problems (i.e. depression)